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Carnivorous plants: either with glandular hairs on the leaves, or with bladders 1–2 mm long borne on submerged or subterranean leaves. Plants not carnivorous. Leaves with glandular hairs, leaves either borne in a rosette, or erect and divided into 2 branches, or on aerial stems; flowers actinomorphic. Leaves modified into insect-trapping bladders, borne in water in aquatic species, or on underground leaves; flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Leaves alternate; flowers actinomorphic. Leaves whorled; flowers zygomorphic. Waterplants: either plants floating on or in water, or plants totally submerged in water or plants rooted in saline mud or in ± permanent water with the upper leaves and flowers in the air. Plants neither floating on nor growing in water. Woody plants – trees or shrubs growing in saline mud (mangroves) or ± permanent water. Plants not woody. Mangroves – woody plants growing in saline mud or estuaries. Woody plants growing in ± permanent water, either fresh or brackish but rarely saline. Leaves opposite. Leaves alternate. Interpetiolar stipules present on the youngest stems, falling as the leaves mature; leaves crowded, internodes mostly <1 cm long; ovary inferior. Stipules absent; leaves not crowded, internodes >2 cm long; ovary superior. Pneumatophores present; leaves white-hairy below; a common mangrove. Pneumatophores absent; leaves glabrous; not common, shrubs on the inland side of mangrove communities. Shoots with stipules 20–30 mm long; leaves palmately veined, densely white-hairy on lower surface. Stipules absent or very small; leaves pinnately veined, glabrous. Milky latex present in broken twigs and petioles; 2 or 3 small glands present at base of lamina. Milky latex absent; glands not present on lamina. Branchlets photosynthetic; leaves apparently absent – leaves either scale-like, or present only on new growth. Branchlets not photosynthetic; leaves normally developed, persistent or sometimes seasonally deciduous. Trees or shrubs, branchlets often drooping; leaves scale-like, whorled. Shrubs with stiff, intertwining branches; leaves absent or present only on new growth, alternate. Leaves >1 m long, compound. Leaves <20 cm long, simple. Trees with papery bark; leaves with several longitudinal veins. Trees or shrubs, bark not papery; leaves with only one longitudinal vein. Trees. Shrubs. Plants hairy; leaves >5 mm wide. Plants glabrous; leaves <5 mm wide. Either herbs free-floating and not attached to the substrate, or herbs attached at edge of water with stems floating over the water surface. Herbs rooted in substrate but not attached at edge of water with stems floating over the water surface. Plants free-floating, not attached to substrate or margin. Plants attached to substrate near margin of water and stems extending out over surface of water. All or most of the vegetative parts of the plant (except for roots or root-like structures) floating on the surface of the water. All or most of the vegetative parts of the plant floating below the surface of the water. Plant-body usually <10 mm long, often <5 mm long; roots absent or hair-like; inflorescence minute, flowers unisexual. Plants always >5 cm long in at least one dimension; roots present, not hair-like; flowers bisexual or unisexual or absent. Petioles usually >5 cm long and inflated. Petioles absent or not inflated. Flowering plants (sometimes reproducing vegetatively); leaves simple. Flowers never produced, reproduction by spores or vegetatively; leaves simple or divided. Leaves 6–15 cm long, 4–8 cm wide with 7–15 ridges, closely overlapping. Leaves generally <6 cm long, without conspicuous ridges. Leaves opposite or whorled. Leaves alternate and either leaves 2-lobed from base, or plant body very small. Leaves modified into animal traps with basal sensitive bristles. Animal traps and sensitive bristles absent. Leaves simple and unbranched. Leaves much branched. All divisions of leaves dichotomous, ultimate segments toothed. Initial division of leaves trichotomous or more, subsequent divisions dichotomous, ultimate segments not toothed. Animal traps present and obvious; plants >2 cm long. Animal traps absent; plant body usually <1 cm long. Leaves peltate. Leaves not peltate. Flowers yellow; no mucilage on leaves. Flowers maroon; mucilage on leaves. Leaves opposite. Leaves alternate. Leaves 10–20 mm wide, ± sessile. Leaves >20 mm wide, petiole >10 mm long. Ocreae (sheaths of fused stipules) present around the petioles and stems. Ocreae absent. Leaves with numerous longitudinal veins; base of lamina cordate; flowers blue. Leaves pinnately veined; base of lamina sagittate, hastate or attenuate; flowers yellow, pink or white. Leaves with lamina ± triangular, base hastate or sagittate, apex acute; flowers pink to ± white. Leaves with lamina ± elliptic, base attenuate, apex rounded; flowers yellow. Leaves emergent, flowers emergent; sometimes plant ± completely emergent. Leaves submerged or floating on the surface, flowers submerged or emergent. Plants with long, narrow leaves, many times longer than wide, often grass-like. Plants with leaves only, at most, a few to several times longer than wide; plants not grass-like. Plants ± grass-like and flowers without true perianth and subtended by one or more bracts (glumes, lemmas or paleas) and organized into characteristic spikelets; leaves flat or terete. Plants not grass-like or if grass-like then flowers with true perianth (hard and scarious or petaloid) or flowers arranged in spikelets; leaves various, sometimes reduced to open sheaths on stems. Flowers unisexual, in a group surrounded by 4 spreading bracts. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, each flower or group of fused unisexual flowers subtended and often enclosed by a bract. Fruit dehiscent, splitting on one side to release a smooth translucent seed. Fruit indehiscent. Flowers subtended by a single bract (glume) and variously arranged into spikelets; leaves mostly with closed sheath and mostly without ligules. Flowers enclosed by a lemma and palea and these variously arranged in characteristic spikelets and mostly subtended by sterile glumes; leaves usually with open sheaths and ligules present although these often much reduced. Perianth dry and scarious, flowers or flower clusters in open paniculate inflorescences; leaves flat, terete or reduced to sheaths; flowers usually bisexual. Perianth of various forms but not dry and scarious, flowers rarely arranged in open paniculate inflorescences and then flowers unisexual. Leaves on adult plants reduced to open sheaths which sometimes bear a small ± linear lamina; flowers usually unisexual and plants mostly dioecious. Leaves not reduced to open sheaths; flowers bisexual or unisexual and plants monoecious. Flowers unisexual with both sexes aggregated into small dense heads surrounded by 2 awned bracts; leaves all basal, linear, <8 cm long. Flowers bisexual or unisexual and male and female flowers separated in same inflorescence; leaves >8 cm long, not all basal, linear. Stems and often margins of leaf bases hairy; flowers yellow, conspicuous. Neither stems nor leaf bases obviously hairy; flowers white, greenish or brown, often inconspicuous. Leaves septate-cylindric, constricted slightly at each septum. Leaves not septate-cylindric. Leaves inflated and spongy when fresh; flowers bisexual. Leaves neither inflated nor spongy; flowers unisexual, plants monoecious. Inflorescence open, flowers on clearly visible pedicels, inflorescence axis visible between flowers; flowers >10 mm diam. Flowers arranged in dense elongated or globose heads; individual flower pedicels not visible; inflorescence axis visible between clusters but not between individual flowers; individual flowers <5 mm diam. Inflorescence dense, spike-like; male flowers above, female flowers below, ± separated by a portion of stem. Inflorescence of dense globose clusters arranged along the axis; upper clusters male, lower clusters female. Leaves compound and/or lobed. Leaves simple, reduced or absent. Leaves palmately lobed or divided, rarely pinnate and then usually with only 2 pairs of pinnae; flowers yellow, solitary, distinctly stalked. Leaves pinnately lobed or divided; flowers white, reddish or greenish, in umbels or racemes or ± solitary and sessile in spike-like inflorescences. Flowers in umbels; crushed leaves smelling like carrot leaves; plants only rarely growing in water. Flowers not in umbels; crushed leaves not smelling like carrot leaves; plants mostly growing in water. Widest leaves or leaf segments >5 mm wide; flowers white, pedicellate, in racemes. Leaves and leaf segments <3 mm wide; flowers red, white or greenish, ± sessile in axils of leaves forming a spike-like inflorescence. Leaves reduced to sheaths on aerial stems. Leaves not reduced to sheaths on stems. Sheaths open. Sheaths closed. Perianth dry and scarious, flowers or flower clusters in open paniculate inflorescences; flowers usually bisexual. Perianth of various forms but not dry and scarious, flowers usually unisexual and plants mostly dioecious. Leaves all basal. Leaves spread along the stem, basal leaves sometimes also present, or leaves absent. Lamina ± circular with a radial slit, petiole attached near centre of lamina. Lamina not ± circular and/or petiole attached towards margin. Plants without horizontal rhizomes or stolons. Plants with horizontal rhizomes or stolons. Lamina <10 cm long; mature plants <30 cm high; flowers white. Lamina >10 cm long; mature plants >50 cm high; flowers white or blue. Longitudinal veins usually <10 (always <20) and midrib well defined, cross veins obvious; flowers white. Longitudinal veins numerous, usually >20, midrib not well defined, cross veins obscure; flowers blue. Leaves with an ocrea (sheathing stipule); leaves alternate or absent. Leaves without an ocrea but leaf bases sometimes winged and half encircling stem; leaves opposite, whorled or alternate. Leaves opposite or whorled. Leaves alternate. Flowers in heads; leaves >20 mm wide, petiole mostly >10 mm long. Flowers solitary or in cymes, spikes or racemes; leaves <20 mm wide, sessile or petiole <10 mm long (sometimes to 15 cm long in Limosella). Flowers in terminal spikes, pink to purple. Flowers solitary or in cymes or racemes, white, blue, red-brown or petals translucent. Leaves united at base, sessile and <3 mm wide, lamina linear to oblong; corolla white or red-brown, 4-lobed, lobes ± equal. Leaves not united at base, either petiolate, or lamina >3 mm wide, oblanceolate to ± obovate; corolla white to blue, 5-lobed, or 4-lobed and then lobes unequal. Flowers unisexual, plants dioecious; corolla red-brown or translucent; aerial stems to 1 m high. Flowers bisexual; corolla white; aerial stems <20 cm high. Flowers in few-flowered cymes; corolla tube split to base on one side. Flowers solitary; corolla tube not split on one side. Leaves without obvious petioles, leaves either sessile or linear to spathulate; flowers pink, blue, purple or white. Leaves with obvious petioles, neither linear nor spathulate; flowers yellow. Leaves sessile, without a winged base; flowers solitary in axils, blue, pink or purple. Leaves linear or spathulate with a winged base half encircling the stem; flowers solitary and/or in heads, blue, pink or white. Plants <20 cm high; flowers in 1–few-flowered cymes, white. Plants 40–200 cm high; flowers in heads, white, blue or pink. Flowers in large panicles; leaves glabrous, without stipules. Flowers solitary, axillary; leaves either with small stipules and/or stems and leaves hairy. At least some leaves always floating on surface of water, flowers (if present) emergent, often some leaves submerged. Most leaves completely submerged, some leaves may be emergent or floating when plant flowering. Leaves simple, peltate with petiole attached near centre of lamina; lamina ± circular, often with a radial slit. Leaves compound or simple and not peltate or rarely petiole attached near the margin of the lamina; lamina broad-lanceolate, elliptic, ovate or obovate. Leaves without a radial slit, margin entire. Leaves with a radial slit, margin entire to toothed. Leaves all basal arising from a corm or buried horizontal rhizome; petals numerous. Leaves arising along a floating horizontal stolon; petals 5. Leaves compound, pinnae 4, sessile, at apex of long petiole, floating on surface of water. Leaves simple. Leaves attached along trailing stem; submerged leaves different from floating leaves (that is, leaves dimorphic). Leaves all basal; leaves either all similar or dimorphic. Plants forming deeply buried tubers; inflorescence many-flowered. Plants not forming deeply buried tubers; flowers solitary. Leaves with base ± cordate; lamina >20 mm wide and with 5–7 longitudinal veins. Leaves with base tapering into petiole; lamina <20 mm wide, venation obscure or only midvein visible. Submerged leaves compound or deeply lobed. Submerged leaves simple and entire. Submerged leaves pinnately divided; emergent leaves pinnately divided or entire. Submerged leaves dichotomously or trichotomously divided. Submerged leaves opposite or whorled; floating leaves if present peltate. Submerged leaves alternate; all leaves divided into linear segments. Plants of marine, estuarine or brackish habitats. Plants of freshwater habitats. Leaves elliptic to ± oblong. Leaves elongated, filiform to linear, grass-like. Leaves >8 mm wide, linear. Leaves <8 mm wide, filiform to linear. Flowers bisexual; flowers in pairs, flowering peduncle >4 cm long. Flowers unisexual; flowers mostly sessile and solitary or in elongated inflorescences ± sessile in axils of leaves. Plants marine; pollen grains thread-like. Plants of brackish or ephemeral saline pools (not marine); pollen grains ± globose. Flowers solitary; plants dioecious. Flowers in rows in a flattened spadix enclosed in a spathe; plants monoecious. Leaves all basal. Leaves arising along stems. Leaves with lamina stiff, ± cylindrical; plants reproducing by spores, flowers never produced. Leaves with lamina soft, flattened, grass-like; plants flowering when mature but flowers usually not present in submerged immature growth. Stolons present. Stolons never formed. Plants producing a well-buried corm, leaves arising from the apex of the corm. Plants not producing a corm, roots superficial, arising from near leaf bases. Plants not producing flattened leaves; branches in whorls, secondary branches ± whorled and ± leaf-like; often encrusted with lime; plants not flowering, reproducing by spores (<i>Chara</i> Plants producing leaves with flattened lamina, leaves often flat, narrow, linear and grass-like; rarely lime-encrusted; mature plants producing flowers. Leaves alternate. Leaves opposite or whorled. Leaves with stipular sheath (or ligule) extending above junction of lamina and basal sheath. Leaves with basal sheath not extending above junction of sheath with lamina, no stipular sheath or ligule above but auricles sometimes present. Leaves with lamina mostly >1 mm wide; perennials with rhizomes, often with tough stems; leaves with a stipular sheath or base of lamina stem-clasping. Leaves with lamina mostly <1 mm wide; usually delicate annuals, stems weak; leaves with a stipular sheath. Leaves with 2 short auricles at base. Leaves without auricles. Leaves opposite and lamina expanded. Leaves usually whorled, lamina filiform or linear. Leaves with 3 or more longitudinal veins arising from near the base of lamina and re-uniting below apex; flowers unisexual. Leaves with only 1 longitudinal vein visible or venation obscure; flowers bisexual. Leaves entire, shortly petiolate with 2 stipules at base, lateral veins ending in minute glands. Leaves toothed and stem-clasping or entire with relatively long petioles, stipules absent. Leaves opposite or ± whorled, lamina with a short, expanded sheath-like base. Leaves whorled, sessile, without an expanded sheath-like base. Plants either climbing, or epiphytic on other plants, or ± parasitic on the aerial parts of other plants. Plants neither climbing nor epiphytic nor parasitic on aerial parts of other plants. Epiphytes, parasites, or hemiparasites, plants not rooted in the soil. Climbing or twining plants with roots in the soil. Rootless parasites or hemiparasites on the aerial parts of other plants. Plants epiphytic but not parasitic on other plants. Stems thread-like, leafless or almost so, forming Rtangled masses over the host and attached to the host by haustoria. Stems robust, parasitic on the branches of shrubs and trees, or parasitic on another parasite. Stems yellowish or reddish; usually parasitic on herbs; calyx and corolla distinct, with 5 segments in each whorl. Stems green, green-red, or blackish, sometimes with brown scale leaves; usually parasitic on shrubs and trees; perianth of 6 similar segments in 2 whorls of 3. Flowers bisexual, >20 mm long; stems ± terete and leaves either terete to linear, or broad and glabrous to tomentose but hairs not stellate. Flowers unisexual, <2 mm long; either stems angular, or flattened and ± leafless, or stems terete and leaves broad and stellate-tomentose. Leaves opposite or whorled. Leaves alternate, sometimes crowded and appearing whorled. Leaves toothed; one leaf at each node generally much smaller than the other; flowers solitary. Leaves entire; leaves at each node of similar size; inflorescence many-flowered. Epiphytic herbs; leaves ± fleshy; inflorescence spicate; flowers <2 mm diam. Climbers; leaves thick and leathery; inflorescence umbellate; flowers >5 mm diam. Leaves compound, palmate or pinnate. Leaves simple. Either leaves with several longitudinal veins, or venation obscure, or leaves terete. Leaves not terete, venation apparent but with only 1 longitudinal vein (lateral veins often present also). Leaves terete or without a constriction above middle of leaf; pseudobulbs with velamen often present. Leaves flat and with a constriction above the middle; pseudobulbs absent. Leaves with midvein and several prominent secondary veins; lamina >10 mm wide and >30 mm long. Leaves with only midvein apparent; lamina <10 mm wide and <30 mm long. Milky latex exudes from broken stems; stipules present; usually epiphytic on rainforest trees. Milky latex absent; stipules absent; generally epiphytic on treeferns. Tendrils present. Tendrils absent. Leaves with 3 or more longitudinal veins, the main veins sometimes joined by a fine reticulum. Leaves with only one longitudinal vein or venation palmate, the fine venation reticulate. Apex of leaves prolonged into a coil. Apex of leaves not prolonged into a coil. Leaves with a closed basal sheath; flowers small, inflorescence paniculate. Leaves with a short petiole, sheath absent; flowers large, solitary. Tendrils borne on petiole, paired; 3 or 5 longitudinal veins joined by obvious fine reticulum; inflorescence umbel-like; fruit black. Tendrils on stem opposite the leaves, solitary; longitudinal veins not conspicuously joined by fine reticulum; inflorescence paniculate; fruit red. Leaves compound. Leaves simple, often deeply lobed. Leaves pinnately compound with an even number of pinnae (2–20). Leaves compound with an odd number of pinnae (3–9), leaves palmate, biternate, pedate or palmately 3-foliolate. Leaves with 4–20 pinnae; stamens 10 or 5; fruit a legume or capsule, seeds not winged. Leaves with 2 pinnae; stamens 4; fruit a 2-valved follicle, seeds winged. Stipules present; flowers in racemes or solitary and <3 cm long; stamens 10; fruit a legume. (FABOIDEAE) Stipules absent; flowers solitary and >5 cm long; stamens 5; fruit a capsule. Tendrils opposite leaves; palmate, pedate or 3-foliolate, pinnae usually 3–7; fruit a berry. Tendrils associated with inflorescence; leaves biternate with 9 pinnae; fruit an inflated capsule. Tendrils opposite leaves; leaves pinnately veined; domatia regularly present. Tendrils in leaf axils or beside or below the petiole base; leaves palmately veined; domatia usually absent. Tendrils strictly axillary, unbranched; petioles usually with raised glands; flowers bisexual, ovary superior. Tendrils beside or below the base of the petiole, often branched; petioles without glands; flowers unisexual, ovary inferior. Leaves compound with 2 or more pinnae. Leaves simple or 1-foliolate (sometimes apparently absent). Leaves 2- or 3-pinnate or leaves ternately divided. Leaves pinnate or palmate. Prickles present on stems and on rachises of leaves. (CAESALPINIOIDEAE) Prickles absent. Rachis of leaves twining; leaves trailing and to several metres long; pinnae very numerous. Petioles and petiolules often twining; leaves <30 cm long; pinnae usually 9–45. Leaves opposite, ternately divided. Leaves alternate, pinnately divided. Leaves opposite or rarely whorled. Leaves alternate. Leaves with 2 or 5–17 pinnae, rarely 3 or more than 13. Leaves with 3 pinnae. Petioles and petiolules elongated and often twining around supports; domatia absent. Petioles and petiolules short and not twining; domatia often present. Prickles present on stems and leaves. Prickles absent. Pinnae with longitudinal veins; prickles ± straight, fine; leaves pinnate, often >50 cm long. Pinnae pinnately veined; prickles hooked, coarse; leaves palmate or pinnate, <20 cm long. Stipules and stipels usually present, at least visible on young shoots; fruit a legume; pinnae 1–19. (FABOIDEAE) Stipules and stipels absent; fruit a berry or drupe; pinnae 3–9. Leaves with pinnae all similar, usually 3, rarely 4 or 5; petiole scabrous with bristly hairs. Leaves pinnatifid or pinnate with distinct pinnae on lower rachis and a terminal segment often deeply lobed; petiole smooth. Leaves alternate. Leaves opposite or occasionally whorled. Prickles or spines present. Prickles and spines absent. Plants apparently leafless or leaves ± succulent and falling relatively early. Leaves normally developed and ± persistent, not ± succulent. Stems either succulent and with groups of small spines at regular intervals over surface of swollen stems or numerous spines clustered on older stems; flowers ± solitary, >3 cm long. Spines not clustered, stems not succulent but often ending in spines; flowers in globose heads, <1 cm long. (CAESALPINIOIDEAE) Leaves with 3 or 5 longitudinal veins. Main veins pinnate. Axillary spines present. Prickles present on stem or at base of petiole. Leaves 3–5-lobed; stipules present, linear, not spinescent. Leaves entire; stipules spinescent. Either leaves apparently absent (reduced to scales, falling early or very sparse) or plants climbing by adventitious roots. Plants with normally developed ± persistent leaves, not climbing by adventitious roots. Leaves scale-like; adventitious roots sometimes present. Leaves not scale-like, either normally-developed, or apparently absent; adventitious roots usually present. Stems thread-like, leafless or almost so, forming tangled masses over the host and attached to the host by haustoria (only seedlings rooted in soil). Stems not thread-like, not forming tangled masses over the host, leaves scale-like or falling early, haustoria absent. Stems yellowish or reddish; usually parasitic on herbs; calyx and corolla distinct, with 5 segments in each whorl. Stems green, green-red, or blackish, sometimes with brown scale leaves; usually parasitic on shrubs and trees; perianth of 6 similar segments in 2 whorls. Milky latex exudes from broken stems; adventitious roots absent. Milky latex absent; adventitious roots present. Aerial roots absent, stems twining; leaves either apparently absent, or if present then sparse and lamina linear to elliptic or oblanceolate and margins entire. Aerial roots present, stems sometimes twining; leaves abundant, not lamina linear to elliptic or oblanceolate and margins entire. Leaves with a constriction above the middle; leaf base sheathing. Leaves without a constriction above the middle; leaf base not sheathing, petiole present. Leaves entire; stipules present on young stems and leaving a scar encircling the stem at each node. Leaves palmately 3–5-lobed; stipules absent. Leaves with 3–many longitudinal veins. Leaves pinnately or palmately veined. Leaves with base sheathing stem; margins with small spinescent teeth near base of leaves. Leaves without base sheathing stem; margins entire. Leaves with many closely spaced ± parallel veins. Leaves with 3–7 widely spaced longitudinal veins. Petioles stout and rather short; leaves with base of lamina rounded or tapering into petiole; most leaves usually regularly whorled or opposite. Petioles slender and relatively long; leaves with base of lamina hastate or cordate; leaves always alternate. Leaves ± triangular and margins regularly toothed to finely crenate, base generally cordate. Leaves not ± triangular, if leaves toothed then base not cordate. At least young stems, petioles and lower surface of leaves hairy; ocreae (sheaths of fused stipules) absent. Leaves and stems ± glabrous; ocreae present at nodes. Stems and leaves softly and densely hairy; petioles of many leaves twining. Stems and petioles with scattered, bristly, stinging hairs; petioles not twining. Leaves with petiole more than half as long as lamina; lamina ovate to ± circular, margins entire, lobed or angled and base often cordate; venation palmate or prominently 3-veined from near base. Leaves with petiole less than half as long as lamina; lamina linear to ovate to oblanceolate, rarely base cordate, margins generally entire, occasionally toothed, crenate or lobed; venation pinnate, rarely obscurely 3-veined from base. Flowers in heads surrounded by herbaceous involucral bracts; leaves palmately 5–7-angled. Flowers not in heads surrounded by bracts; leaves palmately lobed or 2- or 3-angled. Flowers bisexual, solitary or a few together, axillary or terminal. Flowers unisexual; inflorescence with many flowers, axillary. Leaves peltate; flowers spurred. Leaves not peltate; flowers not spurred. Corolla tubular; a small amount of milky latex present; either leaves hairy or margins palmately lobed or base sagittate or hastate; base of lamina usually cordate. Perianth segments free; milky latex absent; leaves glabrous and margins either entire or with 1 or 2 angles; base of lamina not cordate. Ovary inferior; carpels fused, 3; fruit a capsule, deeply 3-angled. Ovary superior; carpels free or 1; fruit a drupe, not deeply angled. Margins of leaves toothed, crenate or deeply lobed. Margins of leaves entire. Herbaceous climbers, lenticels absent; flowers >15 mm diam. Woody climbers or twiners, lenticels raised and obvious on stem; flowers <5 mm diam. Leaves toothed to crenate, ± sessile with base encircling stem; flowers yellow. Leaves deeply lobed, petiolate; flowers white to pale blue. Leaves scabrous below; teeth coarse and irregular; milky latex sometimes present. Leaves not scabrous; teeth usually regular and fine, margins often ± crenate; latex absent. Petioles with a distinct joint or pulvinus-like swelling at the apex or petioles thickened and twisted. Petioles not thickened and twisted, lacking a distinct joint or pulvinus-like swelling at the apex, either absent or very short or if longer then not rigid. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic. Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic. Petioles without stipels and joint near apex; petiole base expanded into a horizontal ridge extending three-quarters of the way around the stem; corolla tubular. Petioles with stipels and a joint near apex (leaf 1-foliolate); petiole base not expanded; corolla not tubular. (FABOIDEAE) Leaves oblanceolate and tapering into the base, base sheathing the stem. Leaves usually not oblanceolate, base not sheathing the stem. Leaves hairy. Leaves glabrous or almost so (sometimes stellate hairs present on new growth). Mature leaves <5 cm long, sessile or petiole <1 cm long; small twining plants. Mature leaves >5 cm long, petiole >1 cm long; woody climbers. Leaves ± fleshy, ± broad-ovate, base cordate; axillary tubers borne at some nodes. Leaves not fleshy, linear to ovate, base not cordate; axillary tubers absent. Leaves with translucent or opaque dots scattered over lower leaf surface. Leaves lacking such dots. Leaves scabrous on lower surface; stellate scales absent. Leaves not scabrous; stellate scales sometimes present. Brown stellate scales on young stems; tall climbers in coastal rainforest north from Dorrigo. Stellate scales absent; scrambling shrubs or twiners, rarely in rainforest; inland or coastal regions. Petioles <10 mm long; widespread, rarely in rainforest. Petioles >10 mm long; coastal species, sometimes in or near rainforest. Flowers mostly absent, if present actinomorphic, <5 mm diam.; scrambling shrub of inland areas. Flowers mostly present, zygomorphic, >5 mm diam.; twining shrubs, widespread. Leaves whorled, scale-like and subtending linear to ovate cladodes in the axils. Leaves not whorled, scale-like and subtending linear to ovate cladodes in the axils. Prickles or spines present. Prickles or spines absent. Spines present at many nodes. Prickles scattered on stems. Milky latex exudes from broken stems and petioles; spines straight. Milky latex absent; spines often curved. Stems 4-angled; leaves pinnately veined, margins toothed. Stems not angled; leaves with 3 or 5 main longitudinal veins, margins entire. Leaves at each node unequal in size. Leaves at each node similar in size. Leaves with numerous minute translucent oil dots, aromatic when crushed. Leaves without translucent oil dots, not aromatic when crushed. Rough stellate hairs present on stems and leaves; hypanthium present, perianth in 1 whorl. Rusty hairs present, especially on young stems and leaves; hypanthium not present, perianth in 2 whorls. Margins of adult leaves crenate or toothed. Margins of adult leaves entire, sometimes juvenile leaves lobed or dissected. Leaves with 3–5 veins rising from base of lamina, base ± cordate. Leaves with only one main longitudinal vein. Leaves glabrous or almost so, shiny above, central area of lamina pale green. Leaves hairy, dull above, not variegated in colour. Leaves slightly glossy above, dull below; stems forming short coils and abrupt knot-like bends around supports. Leaves very glossy above, moderately glossy below; stems twining in loose, elongated spirals. Interpetiolar stipules present; domatia present on most leaves, sometimes minute. Interpetiolar stipules absent or greatly reduced; domatia absent. Petioles distinctly jointed a little above the base. Petioles lacking such a joint. Stems 4-angled. Stems not angled. Milky or clear latex absent; stamens 1–4 or if 5 then flowers strongly zygomorphic. Milky or yellowish latex usually exudes from broken stems or petioles; stamens 5; flowers actinomorphic. Leaves not lobed at base, hairy below. Leaves sagittate to hastate, glabrous. Leaves wrinkled above, whitish with stellate hairs below; flowers mauve or yellow. Leaves smooth above, green below, hairs simple or glandular; flowers cream or yellow. Either upper surface of leaves with a cluster of 2–20 minute raised glands at the base of lamina (hand lens needed) or leaves reduced and scale-like; pollen aggregated into pollinia. Upper surface of leaves without any raised glands (leaves never reduced and scale-like); pollen either granular or rarely aggregated into pollinia. Pollen granular, not aggregated into pollinia. Pollen aggregated into pollinia. Leaves apparently absent, often reduced to scales. Leaves present, not reduced to scales. Saprophytic or parasitic herbs, usually without chlorophyll; the stems yellow or purple. Chlorophyll present, stems sometimes with yellowish tinge if the plants are hemiparasitic on roots of other plants. Flowers usually strongly zygomorphic; stamens 4 or 1. Flowers actinomorphic; stamens 6 or rarely 3. Ovary inferior; stamen 1. Ovary superior; stamens 4. Cladodes succulent, often jointed. Cladodes not succulent, either smooth or angular, sometimes flattened or winged. Cladodes >10 mm diam., cylindrical, angular or flattened, bearing numerous spines. Cladodes <8 mm diam., ± cylindrical, spines absent. Milky latex absent; cladodes jointed; erect or prostrate shrubs or subshrubs. Milky latex present; cladodes sometimes jointed; scrambling shrubs. Scale leaves alternate; fruit a capsule c. 4 mm long, seeds 3. Leaves opposite; fruit a follicle 5–14 cm long, seeds numerous. Cladodes winged or leaves reduced to spines. Cladodes or branchlets not winged, either terete or flattened. Wings on cladodes firm and brown; leaves reduced to spines. (FABOIDEAE) Wings herbaceous to membranous; plants not spinose. Scale leaves subtending leaf-like cladodes, cladodes often clustered or whorled. Leaves not subtending leaf-like cladodes. Scale leaves in whorls of 4 or more and fused at the base. Scale leaves (or leaf scars) alternate or opposite. Spines regularly present along adult stems. Spines not regularly present on adult stems, but branches sometimes ending in spines or spines present on juvenile growth. Spines alternate. Spines opposite. Leaves opposite. Leaves alternate. Herbs in swamps; flowers unisexual. Shrubs or subshrubs, not in swamps; flowers bisexual. Flowers 3–4 mm long; shrubs; fruit brownish, not succulent; at least some leaves normally-developed on plant. Flowers either <2 mm long, or >6 mm long; subshrubs, prostrate or erect; fruit red to orange, succulent; no leaves normally developed. Erect subshrubs; flowers 8–10 mm long, white; western species. Prostrate subshrubs; flowers 1–2 mm long, greenish; high altitude species. Flowers unisexual, borne in clusters at almost every node over the whole plant (dead flower parts usually persistent). Flowers bisexual, borne mainly towards the ends of branches (dead flower parts not usually persistent). Either ovary inferior, or ovary superior and then fruiting pedicel enlarged and often succulent. Ovary superior, but fruiting pedicel neither enlarged nor succulent. Scale leaves encircling stem and usually a few millimetres apart; flowers small, pink and in large terminal panicles. Leaves not scale leaves encircling stem and usually more than a few millimetres apart; flowers and inflorescences not large terminal panicles. Flowers bisexual, strongly zygomorphic. Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic. Flowers blue; inner 2 sepals large and petaloid; fruit a capsule. Flowers yellow, orange or rarely purple; sepals not petaloid, shortly tubular and ± equal; fruit a legume. (FABOIDEAE) Shrubs or small trees 1–4 m high; flowers solitary or in short, few-flowered racemes; fruit a berry. Shrubs with tangled branches; flowers in interrupted, spike-like racemes; fruit an indehiscent nut. Leaves consistently whorled. Leaves alternate or opposite or leaf solitary. Woody plants, trees or erect shrubs. Herbs or prostrate or hemispherical subshrubs. Milky latex or coloured resin exudes from cut or broken twigs or petioles. Neither milky latex nor coloured resin exudes from cut or broken twigs or petioles. Milky latex exudes from cut stems or petioles. Yellowish to red resin exudes from cut stems or petioles. Leaves with 5–7 main longitudinal veins. (STYPHELIOIDEAE) Leaves with only 1 main longitudinal vein. Leaves either <3 cm long, or if 3–6 cm long then neither rigid nor pungent-pointed. Leaves either >6 cm long or if 3–6 cm long then rigid and pungent-pointed. Whorls usually with 3 or 4 leaves. Whorls with 5–7 leaves. Leaves 3–6 mm long and ± terete. Leaves >6 mm long or if less then not ± terete. Stems 4-angled. Stems not 4-angled. Leaves in whorls of 3, rarely more. Leaves in whorls of 4 (rarely 3 or 5). Plants ± white-tomentose; leaves sessile. Plants never white-tomentose; leaves mostly petiolate, if sessile then plants glabrous or hairy. Fruit a legume; flowers zygomorphic. (FABOIDEAE) Fruit a drupe; flowers actinomorphic. Whorls consistently with 6 `leaves' (actually 2 sessile 3-foliolate leaves); fruit a capsule. Whorls with 5–7 leaves (phyllodes); fruit a legume. (MIMOSOIDEAE) Leaves mesomorphic. Leaves scleromorphic. Stipular sheaths present on apex of shoots. Stipular sheaths absent. Stems terete; terminal buds scaly. Stems angular; terminal buds not scaly. Terminal buds scaly; juvenile leaves whorled, toothed, adult leaves alternate, entire. Terminal buds not scaly; all leaves whorled, entire or toothed. Interpetiolar stipules present; leaves glaucous below; flowers in separated, dense, ± globose clusters. Stipules absent; leaves not glaucous below; inflorescence racemose or flowers in heads surrounded by bracts. Leaves succulent and either terete or about as wide as long; leaves usually in whorls of 4. Leaves not succulent; leaves opposite or in whorls of 2 to many. Leaves terete, 3–7 mm long; calyx and corolla present. Leaves flat, about as long as wide, 5–15 mm long; flowers naked. Leaves regularly in whorls of 3 or leaves opposite; flowers purple to blue, c. 8–10 mm long. Leaves in whorls of 4 or more, sometimes some in 3s; flowers usually greenish to white, mostly <5 mm long. Leaves fused into a basal tube with only apices free; stems longitudinally grooved. Leaves not fused into a basal tube with only apices free; stems rarely grooved. Stems 4-angled; ovary inferior. Stems not 4-angled; ovary superior. Perianth in 1 whorl; stipules absent. Sepals and petals present; stipules present. Leaves usually with reticulate venation; vascular bundles open, that is, secondary thickening occurs; taproot present, at least in seedlings; flower parts usually in whorls of 4 or 5; embryo mostly with 2 cotyledons (dicots). Leaves usually with parallel venation; vascular bundles closed, that is, no secondary thickening occurs; root system fibrous; flower parts usually in whorls of 3; embryo mostly with 1 cotyledon (monocots). Leaves compound, with 2 or more distinct pinnae. Leaves 1-foliolate or simple (sometimes lamina deeply lobed but not divided into discrete leaflets). Leaves either 2- or 3-pinnate or biternate. Leaves either 1-pinnate or palmate. Herbs. Shrubs or trees. Ovary superior; flowers zygomorphic or actinomorphic. Ovary inferior; most flowers actinomorphic, rarely all zygomorphic. Flowers zygomorphic; fruit a nut; leaves 2- or 3-pinnate. Flowers actinomorphic; fruit a follicle; leaves biternate. Upper part of petioles usually with reduced pinnae or flaps of tissue; flowers in heads. Reduced pinnae or flaps of tissue absent (the lowest pinnae largest); flowers in umbels. Pinnae with a terminal pinnule or segment. Pinnae without a terminal pinnule or segment. Leaves with jointed rachis; ovary inferior or superior. Leaves without jointed rachis; ovary superior. Ovary inferior. Ovary superior. Pinnules toothed to subentire. Pinnules entire. Leaves regularly 2-pinnate; leaves glabrous except for stellate hairs on petioles; fruit an indehiscent drupe. Leaves irregularly 2–4-pinnate; lower surface of leaves either hairy (hairs not stellate) or strongly glaucous; fruit dehiscent. Fruit a capsule, covered with irritant hairs; leaves irregularly 2-pinnate. Fruit a follicle, glabrous; leaves irregularly 2–4-pinnate. Leaves without oil dots, lower surface pale, silky; leaves deeply 2- or 3-pinnatifid. Leaves with oil dots, lower surface either glabrous or with scattered hairs; leaves regularly or irregularly 2-pinnate. Flowers zygomorphic; spines or prickles present. (CAESALPINIOIDEAE) Flowers actinomorphic; spines and prickles present or absent. (MIMOSOIDEAE) Trees and shrubs. Herbaceous plants. Leaves opposite, sometimes apparently whorled. Leaves alternate. Oil dots present in leaves, leaves aromatic when crushed. Oil dots absent, leaves not aromatic when crushed. Interpetiolar stipules present. Stipules absent. Margins of pinnae toothed; stipules not resinous. Margins of pinnae entire; stipules resinous. Leaves sessile, 3-foliolate; pinnae <1.5 cm long. Leaves petiolate, 3–11-foliolate; pinnae 2–12 cm long. Leaves with small stalked glands on rachis between petiolules. Leaves without glands on rachis. Cultivated trees, sometimes naturalized; fruit dry, winged. Shrub in rainforest; fruit succulent, not winged. Stipules present and pinnae regularly toothed. Either stipules absent or if stipules present then pinnae not regularly toothed. Prickles absent. Prickles usually present; stipules ± linear; rachis not winged. Stipules >1 cm wide; rachis winged. Stipules not prominent, <3 mm wide; rachis not winged. Stipules free, ± semicircular, 1–2 cm long; fruit drupaceous. Stipules fused and encircling the stem, >5 cm long; fruit capsular. Fruit a legume or samara; stipules mostly present on new growth but often shed early. Fruit variable but neither a legume nor a samara; stipules absent or inconspicuous. Fruit a legume. Fruit a samara. Stamens 10 and free, either unequal or some reduced and sterile. (CAESALPINIOIDEAE) Stamens 10, free or variously united, equal in size, all fertile. (FABOIDEAE) Oil dots present in leaves, leaves aromatic when crushed. Oil dots absent, leaves not aromatic when crushed. Leaves palmately compound with 5 or more pinnae or pinnae 3 and pinnae with silvery scales below. Leaves pinnately compound or if pinnae 3 then not silvery below. Domatia present, sometimes small and inconspicuous. Domatia absent. Petioles and stems exuding a clear sap when cut; fruit an indehiscent drupe. Petioles and stems not exuding a clear sap when cut; fruit usually a dehiscent capsule. Pinnae regularly toothed. Pinnae entire (rarely a few teeth in juveniles). Either stamens fused into a tube or seeds winged; leaves either with >10 leaflets, or with a terminal pinna present, or pinnae opposite and rachis without a terminal spur. Stamens not fused into a tube and seeds not winged; leaves mostly <10 leaflets and rachis ending in a terminal spur, true terminal leaflet absent, pinnae often subopposite. Leaves with main rachis jointed at the point where the pinnae are attached, the pinnae usually opposite. Leaves without jointed rachis. Leaves with either a terminal spur at end of rachis (pinnae alternate, subopposite or opposite), or fruit a 2–6-winged capsule. Leaves without terminal spur on rachis (pinnae mostly opposite); fruit variable but not a winged capsule. Pinnae toothed, lobed or dissected. Pinnae (or leaves) with entire margins. Pinnae with spinose teeth; adult leaves usually >30 cm long. Pinnae with blunt teeth or lobes; adult leaves usually <30 cm long. Leaves pinnate throughout; rachis not winged. Leaves pinnatisect in upper part; rachis winged. Leaves with 12–30 pinnae, without a terminal pinna. Leaves with 5–13 pinnae, with a terminal pinna. Leaves pinnate and simple on the same shoot; fruit a follicle. All leaves pinnate; fruit a drupe or capsule. Pinnae with an obvious swelling at junction of petiolule with rachis, terminal pinna always present; fruit a drupe. Pinnae without a swelling at junction of petiolule and rachis, terminal pinna usually not present; fruit a capsule. Leaves pinnate without a terminal pinna. Leaves palmate or pinnate with a terminal pinna. Leaves opposite; stipules interpetiolar; pinnae 2–24. Leaves alternate; paired stipules usually present at base of each petiole; pinnae >2. (FABOIDEAE) Leaves dotted with oil glands. Leaves without oil glands. Leaves with 3 pinnae arranged at the apex of a relatively long petiole; pinnae ± obcordate, margins entire; fruit a capsule. Leaves not with 3 pinnae arranged at the apex of a relatively long petiole; pinnae not obcordate, margins not entire; fruit various, rarely a capsule. Leaves palmate with 3–11 pinnae, petiolule of terminal pinna ± as long as petiolules of lateral pinnae. Leaves pinnate with 3 or more pinnae, petiolule of terminal pinna longer than those of lateral pinnae. Leaves irregularly palmately dissected, pinnae irregularly lobed. Leaves regularly divided into pinnae, margins entire or regularly toothed. Either pinnae entire or stipules spinescent, the pinnae usually with glandular hairs. Pinnae toothed, stipules not spinescent. Flowers unisexual, <5 mm diam.; stipules not fused to petiole. Flowers bisexual, >10 mm diam.; stipules fused to petiole. Stipules present. Stipules absent, petioles sometimes dilated at the base. Pinnae toothed, the teeth >1 mm deep; flowers actinomorphic. Pinnae entire or with teeth <1 mm deep or pinnae lobed or deeply dissected; flowers zygomorphic. (FABOIDEAE) Flowers in heads surrounded by involucral bracts (leaves often deeply pinnatisect). Flowers not in heads surrounded by involucral bracts; leaves not deeply pinnatisect. Pinnae 3, usually deeply dissected; fruit a cluster of achenes. Pinnae more than 3; fruit not an achene. Flowers in umbels or umbellate clusters. Flowers not in umbels. Ovary inferior. Ovary superior. Leaves succulent or spinose. Leaves neither succulent nor spinose. Leaves succulent, opposite. Leaves spinose, alternate. Leaves tasting like mustard; petals mostly yellow or white; stamens usually 6. Leaves not tasting like mustard; petals blue; stamens 5. Flowers enclosed in an invaginated floral axis; fruit multiple, a syconium or fig. Flowers not enclosed in an invaginated floral axis; fruit not a syconium or fig. Flowers unisexual, arranged in a cyathium; white latex present. Flowers either bisexual, or if unisexual then not arranged in a cyathium; white latex either absent or if rarely present then flowers bisexual. Ocreae (sheaths of fused stipules) present around the petiole and stem. Ocreae absent. Ovary superior or the flower naked. Ovary inferior or half-inferior. Carpels ± free, fruit usually separating into distinct carpels, that is, 2 or more ovaries present (sometimes carpels enclosed in hypanthium and `ovary' apparently solitary). Carpels fused or the carpel solitary, that is, ovary and fruit solitary. Milky or yellowish latex exudes from broken stems. Milky or yellowish latex absent. Pollen granular, not aggregated into pollinia; fruit black or more often brightly coloured, mostly drupaceous, sometimes a pair of tardily dehiscent follicles. Pollen aggregated into pollinia; fruit a pair of green or brownish dehiscent follicles. Herbs, sometimes trailing. Shrubs or trees. Petals fused into a tube. Petals free. Leaves opposite. Leaves alternate. Carpels equal in number to the petals; leaves opposite, succulent. Carpels much more numerous than the petals; leaves usually alternate, not succulent. Leaves opposite. Leaves alternate, sometimes ± whorled. Either stamens 5 and alternate with 5 staminodes or stamens numerous and on an androgynophore. Stamens >5 but not on an androgynophore. Sepals and petals modified into calyptras; carpels immersed in the receptacle. Calyptras not formed; carpels not immersed in the receptacle. Fruit a cluster of berries; leaves with fine oil dots and aromatic when crushed. Fruit otherwise; leaves without oil dots, not aromatic when crushed. Flowers mostly unisexual; fruit blue to blackish; leaves tasting like pepper. Flowers bisexual; fruit orange to red; leaves not tasting like pepper. Stamens perigynous. Stamens hypogynous. Receptacles urn-shaped and almost enclosing carpels; fruit a number of individual achenes enclosed in a false fruit or `hip'. Receptacles saucer-shaped; fruit a cluster of follicles. Individual fruit dehiscent, follicles; carpels always completely free. Individual fruit not dehiscent, drupes; carpels often united by their common style. Leaves toothed; individual black drupes seated on swollen red receptacle. Leaves entire; individual drupes either red, orange or brownish, receptacle neither swollen nor red. Leaves usually <5 cm long and with <10 pairs of secondary veins; western species. Leaves mostly >5 cm long and with >10 pairs of secondary veins; coastal species. Fertile stamens more than twice as many as sepals or tepals (tepals as in Proteaceae, Moraceae). Fertile stamens to twice as many as sepals or tepals. Leaves alternate. Leaves opposite. Leaves modified to phyllodes, identified by the extrafloral nectary on the upper edge; carpel 1; fruit a legume or a lomentum. (MIMOSOIDEAE) Leaves not modified into phyllodes; carpels 1 or more; fruit neither a legume nor lomentum. Either all flowers unisexual or unisexual and bisexual flowers occurring together in the same inflorescence. All flowers bisexual. Sepals fused and enclosing the bud, splitting into 2 or 3 lobes; carpel 1; leaves tasting like pepper. Sepals or perianth otherwise; carpel 1 or 3–indefinite; leaves not tasting like pepper. Carpels 3, fused; styles 3. Carpels 1, or >3 (rarely 3 and with 1 style). Sepals and petals present; carpels 4 or 5, rarely 3, central column absent. Either sepals or petals absent; carpels solitary or >3 and then united around a central column. Perianth represented by blunt teeth; carpels 4–7 or >20, united around a central column; fruit without spines. Perianth sepaloid, 2–3 mm long; carpel solitary; fruit covered by spines. Carpel solitary; fruit a drupe. Carpels >2, fused together; fruit variable. Carpels incompletely fused, either free at the apex or carpels united only by their gynobasic style. Carpels fused throughout, except sometimes in upper style and stigma. Carpels free at the apex, ovules and seeds visible. Carpels united only by their gynobasic style. Filaments of stamens fused, forming a tube around the styles, stigmas protruding above the tube. Filaments free or almost so, not forming a tube. Sepals 2 or 3, sometimes united into a calyptra. Sepals 4 or more. Flowers solitary on long scapes; placentation parietal. Flowers in few- to many-flowered cymes, cymose panicles or heads, rarely solitary in leaf axils; placentation basal or free-central. Ovary on a gynophore. Ovary ± sessile. Rigid spreading shrubs; leaves <5 mm wide. Erect shrubs; leaves >5 mm wide. Leaves deeply and irregularly pinnatisect, glabrous. Leaves entire, covered with appressed hairs. Placentation parietal; leaf margins entire or bluntly angular. Placentation axile; leaf margins usually finely or coarsely toothed. Anthers opening by terminal valves or pores. Anthers opening by longitudinal slits. Shrubs or trees. Herbs or small shrubs. Leaves gland-dotted, not succulent, bright green. Leaves not gland-dotted, succulent or often greyish and apparently whorled. Perianth in 1 whorl or the flower naked. Perianth in 2 whorls. Flowers naked, perianth absent. Flowers with perianth present. Trees with alternate leaves; flowers in catkins. Herbs with opposite leaves. Flowers bisexual, in dense terminal spikes. Flowers unisexual, axillary, solitary or in pairs. Perianth segments scarious. Perianth segments herbaceous or petaloid. Stamens 8–10. Stamens <8. Leaves opposite. Leaves alternate and/or radical. Herbs. Trees or shrubs. Flowers with tubular hypanthium, several times longer than ovary; leaves usually <6 cm long. Flowers with hypanthium or perianth about as long as the ovary; leaves >6 cm long. Flowers unisexual. Flowers bisexual. Style simple; fruit a winged capsule. Style branched or styles as many as the carpels; fruit not a winged capsule. Carpels 3, fused, styles 3; fruit usually 3-lobed. Carpels 2 or >3 and united around a central column; styles free, 2–7, or fused and 4–7-branched; fruit 2- or >3-lobed. Carpels 8–10. Carpels usually 3–5. Herbs or subshrubs. Shrubs or small trees. Plants of coastal areas; seeds without arils. Plants of inland areas; seeds with a fleshy red aril. Styles 2 or more, or the style branched. Style simple, unbranched (stigma sometimes lobed). Ovary usually 3-locular, rarely 2–7-locular. Ovary 1-locular. Herbs with opposite leaves, the leaf bases usually fused; stipules sometimes present; glabrous or with a few simple hairs. Trees, shrubs or herbs with leaves alternate (rarely opposite, and if so, without stipules, the leaf bases not fused and hairs tubercled). Shrubs or trees; mostly in or near rainforest. Herbs or small shrubs; widespread, rarely in rainforest. Fruit solitary or paired, drupaceous; leaves usually 3-veined from base. Fruit crowded and forming a multiple fruit; leaves not 3-veined from base. Perianth tubular (at least in bud) or tubular hypanthium present. Perianth not tubular (sometimes fused at the base and forming a shallow cup). Stamens always 6; petals 6; calyx represented by a cup which enlarges in fruit. Stamens mostly 2–5, sometimes 6–8; calyx not a cup which enlarges in fruit. Upper part of perianth tube falling, the lower part persisting and enclosing the fruit. Otherwise. Stamens 2; inserted on the rim of the tubular hypanthium. Stamens >3; not inserted on the rim of a tubular hypanthium. Trees or shrubs; stamens opposite to and fused with the perianth segments. Herbs or subshrubs; stamens alternating with the perianth segments. Stamens opposite the perianth segments. Stamens alternating with the perianth segments. Either trees or tall shrubs with toothed leaves, often with stinging hairs, or herbs sometimes with stinging hairs. Shrubs with entire leaves (glabrous or hairy but without stinging hairs). Leaves opposite; herbs. Leaves alternate; small trees, shrubs or subshrubs. Leaves with a rusty stellate tomentum. Leaves glabrous or hairy with simple hairs. Flowers unisexual; fruit succulent, not winged. Flowers bisexual; fruit dry, winged. Trees; leaves with domatia. Subshrubs; leaves without domatia. Petals free. Petals fused into a tube, rarely split down one side or at base. Flowers zygomorphic. Flowers actinomorphic. Sepals 2; soft herbs with semisucculent, highly dissected leaves. Sepals or perianth segments 4 or 5; shrubs or herbs, but not with semisucculent, highly dissected leaves. Two lateral sepals large and petaloid. Sepals not with two large and petaloid lateral sepals. Shrubs with stout spines and fruit a berry <5 mm long; flowers very slightly zygomorphic. Herbs or shrubs, rarely with spines and then fruit a legume; flowers strongly zygomorphic. Stamens 5, all fertile, staminodes absent; either sepal or petal spurred. Stamens and staminodes when present totalling 10; uppermost sepal sometimes spurred. Lowermost petal spurred at base, sepals not spurred; leaves not succulent; herbs or shrubs. Petals not spurred, uppermost sepal spurred; leaves ± succulent; semisucculent shrubs. Carpels 3 or 5; uppermost sepal often spurred. Carpel 1; uppermost sepal not spurred. Carpels 3; leaves peltate. Carpels 5; leaves not peltate. Petals dissimilar in size and shape, consisting of one large posterior standard, inserted to the outside of 2 lateral wings and 2 fused segments (keel) that enclose the stamens. (FABOIDEAE) Petals ± similar in size and shape, posterior petal innermost, petals usually not fused. (CAESALPINIOIDEAE) Woody plants. Herbs. Leaves with oil dots, leaves aromatic when crushed. Leaves without oil dots, not distinctly aromatic when crushed. Fruit a capsule or berry; flowers >3 mm long: disc present between stamens and ovary; oil dots relatively large. Fruit drupaceous; flowers 1–2 mm long; disc absent; oil dots minute. Disc present between the stamens and the ovary. Disc absent. Stamens 8–12. Stamens 4 or 5. All flowers unisexual. Either all flowers bisexual or rarely some unisexual. Leaves either entire or toothed to crenate, if teeth spinose then leaves not glossy and fruit a capsule; fruit usually capsular, rarely drupaceous or a berry. Leaves with spinose teeth and glossy; fruit drupaceous. Stamens 2. Stamens >2. Stamens hypogynous. Stamens perigynous. Anthers dehiscing by terminal pores or valves. Anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Stems with 3-branched spines. Stems without spines. Small shrubs; leaves <2 cm long. Trees or tall shrubs; leaves >4 cm long. Stamens 4 or 5. Stamens 8 or 10. Stamens alternating with staminodes. Staminodes absent. Leaves stellate-hairy; fruit a capsule. Leaves glabrous; fruit a drupe. Anthers with a terminal appendage; shrubs with stout spines; flowers slightly zygomorphic. Appendages absent; trees or spinose shrubs, spines fine; flowers actinomorphic. Leaves opposite. Leaves alternate. Interpetiolar stipules present; leaves not lobed, margins toothed. Stipules absent; leaves palmately lobed, otherwise margins entire. Leaves glabrous; rainforest species. Leaves covered with appressed hairs; western species. Leaves usually <3.5 cm long; fruit red, <9 mm long; petals white. Leaves usually >3.5 cm long; fruit black, >9 mm long; petals yellow. Stamens alternating with the sepal lobes; stipules present. Stamens alternating with the petals; stipules absent. Ovary 1–2-locular. Ovary 4–5-locular. Sepals 2 or 3. Sepals or outer perianth segments 4 or more. Sepals 2. Sepals 3. Flowers with tubular hypanthium bearing 4–6 sepals, 4–6 appendages and 4–6 petals. Flowers without hypanthium. Flowers unisexual. Flowers bisexual. Leaves dotted with oil glands. Leaves without oil dots. Fruit a schizocarp splitting into awned mericarps. Fruit a siliqua, silicula or capsule. Leaves opposite (sometimes apparently whorled). Leaves alternate. Ovary 2–5-locular; leaves Y-shaped. Ovary 1-locular; leaves not Y-shaped. Placentation free-central; mostly herbs, rarely dwarf shrubs; leaves generally green, or if greyish then not salt encrusted. Placentation parietal; dwarf shrubs; leaves generally greyish because of salt encrusted on surface. Ovary 1-locular; leaves and stems with mixed glandular and non-glandular hairs. Ovary with 2 or more loculi; plants either glabrous or hairy but hairs not glandular. Sepals 4 and petals 4, stamens usually 6; fruit a siliqua or silicula. Sepals and petals 5 or perianth in whorls of 5, stamens 5 or 8; fruit capsular. Ovary 5-locular; flowers blue or yellow; leaves mostly cauline. Ovary 3-locular; flowers white or pinkish; leaves mostly basal. Leaves alternate or all basal. Leaves opposite. Stamens epipetalous. Stamens not epipetalous. Stylar cup around the stigma; anthers fused to each other around style. Cup absent; anthers not fused to each other. Flowers unisexual. Flowers bisexual. Milky latex exudes from broken stems or petioles. Milky latex absent. Shrubs with leaves longitudinally veined; leaves scleromorphic. (STYPHELIOIDEAE) Either leaves not longitudinally veined, or if leaves with >1 longitudinal vein then leaves herbaceous. Style more or less gynobasic, the ovary lobed; either hairs tubercular, or plants glabrous and succulent; inflorescence cymose. Style terminal; tubercular hairs absent and plants not succulent; inflorescence not cymose. Fertile stamens 5, opposite the corolla lobes; 5 staminodes sometimes present also. Stamens 5 or fewer, alternating with the corolla lobes. Staminodes 5, alternating with 5 stamens. Staminodes absent. Herbs or scandent shrubs, if the latter then calyx glandular and flowers >10 mm long. Trees or shrubs, if shrubs then glandular hairs absent and flowers <10 mm long. Ovary 1-locular; ± semi-aquatic herbs either with radical leaves with long petiole and cordate to sagittate lamina, or underground dissected leaves with insect-trapping bladders. Ovary with 2 or more loculi; leaves not dissected or underground leaves with insect-trapping bladders, plants not aquatic. Flowers actinomorphic; stamens 5; bladders absent. Corolla 2-lipped; stamens 2; leaves with bladders. Flowers in compact spikes. Inflorescence otherwise. Herbs with leaves in basal rosettes; dense inflorescence solitary on long leafless scapes. Subshrubs with alternate leaves on branches; inflorescences often clustered near ends of branches. Ovary (placenta) oblique in the flower; flowers usually actinomorphic or almost so. Ovary and placenta straight; flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Herbs, sometimes woody at base. Shrubs or trees. Stamens 4; flowers zygomorphic, corolla usually 2-lipped (stamens 5 in Verbascum and the corolla yellow and the lobes slightly unequal). Stamens 5; flowers actinomorphic. Flowers <15 mm long, solitary or in small axillary clusters. Flowers >20 mm long, in many-flowered terminal inflorescences. Stamens 4, sometimes with 1 staminode; corolla 2-lipped or flower ± actinomorphic. Stamens 5; flowers actinomorphic. Herbs. Woody plants. Flowers zygomorphic. Flowers actinomorphic. Stamens 5; stylar cup present; fruit a small capsule, <2 cm long, not horned. Fertile stamens 2 or 4; stylar cup absent; fruit a horned capsule, >2 cm long. Petals shortly united into a basal tube; cymes few-flowered; prostrate plants. Petals free at the base, fused above; either flowers in many-flowered spikes or racemes, or rarely flowers solitary and then plant prostrate; plants usually erect. Flowers unisexual. Flowers bisexual or polygamous. Stamens 10, anthers dehiscing by terminal pores; calyx enlarging in fruit. Stamens 5 or 10, anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; calyx not enlarging in fruit. Ovary 1- or 2-locular; stamens 5. Ovary usually 5-locular; stamens 10; stems and leaves covered with peltate scales. Ovary 1-locular, ovules 2; fruit an indehiscent drupe. Ovary incompletely 2-locular, ovules several; fruit dehiscing by 2 valves. Domatia pit-like, mostly in forks of secondary veins; inflorescences corymbose panicles; anthers versatile; seed not grooved. Domatia pocket-like, usually confined to axils along primary veins; inflorescences thyrsoid; anthers not versatile; seed grooved Style gynobasic or at least style arising between the 4 lobes of the ovary; fruit consisting of 4 nutlets. Style terminal on the ovary; fruit variable, rarely of 4 nutlets. Corolla tube split to base on one side. Corolla tube not split to base. Stamens fewer than the corolla lobes. Stamens equal in number to the corolla lobes or more numerous. Stamens 2 and the flowers actinomorphic. Stamens more than 2 or if 2 the flowers zygomorphic. Ovary with 1 or 2 basal ovules per loculus; fruit either of 4 nutlets each with or without a succulent layer, or drupaceous. Ovules numerous in each loculus; fruit dry. Plants either glabrous or hairy and then hairs simple or T-shaped. Plants usually densely hairy; hairs much-branched. Leaves with glandular hairs; fruit prominently hardened. Leaves without glandular hairs; fruit not hardened. Fruit indehiscent, without horns, <2 cm long. Fruit dehiscent, horned, >2 cm long. Seeds attached to placentas by hooked processes. Seeds not attached by hooked processes. Milky or yellowish latex exudes from cut or broken stems or petioles. Milky or yellowish latex usually absent. Pollen aggregated into 2–4 pollinia; fruit always a pair of dehiscent, green to brownish follicles (sometimes only 1 develops). Pollen granular, not aggregated into pollinia; fruit a black or brightly coloured capsule, berry or drupe, rarely a pair of tardily dehiscent follicles. Stamens free, 8. Stamens epipetalous, 4–6. Stamens opposite the corolla lobes. Stamens alternating with the corolla lobes. Corolla zygomorphic (sometimes only slightly so); stems often angular. Corolla actinomorphic; stems rarely angular. Stamens 4, in pairs, filaments of unequal length; plants either glabrous or hairy and then hairs simple or T-shaped. Stamens 4–6, all similar; plants usually densely hairy; hairs much-branched. Petiole bases connected by a raised line or flap of tissue. Connection between petiole bases absent. Style terminated by a cup that surrounds the stigma; petals usually with a thickened strip on the back. Stylar cup absent; petals without a thickened strip. Tendrils present on stems. Tendrils absent. Either anthers fused around the style, or the anthers sessile and fused to the style. Anthers free from one another and free from the style. Stamens 3–5, the anthers fused around the style. Anthers 2, sessile, fused to the style. Flowers in heads and surrounded by an involucre of bracts, bracts sometimes fused and then forming a burr in fruit. Flowers neither in heads nor surrounded by involucral bracts; burrs not formed. Leaves opposite and with interpetiolar stipules. Either leaves alternate or if leaves opposite then stipules absent or not interpetiolar. Petals fused into a tube; margins of leaves entire. Petals free; margins of leaves toothed. Flowers aggregated in either heads or head-like umbels with an involucre of bracts. Flowers neither in heads nor in head-like umbels with an involucre of bracts. Leaves not succulent. Leaves succulent. Leaves opposite or ± whorled. Leaves alternate. Leaves succulent or semisucculent; herbs or shrubs. Leaves non-succulent; herbs, shrubs or trees. Corolla present, 4–6-lobed. Corolla not differentiated, perianth present in 1 or 2 whorls, staminodes absent or more often numerous and petaloid. Staminodes 5, not petaloid; flowers in terminal racemes. Staminodes absent; flowers in few-flowered terminal or axillary cymes. Either stamens >5 or if 5 then oil dots prominent in leaves (leaves usually aromatic when crushed). Stamens 5 or fewer and oil dots absent from leaves. Leaves dotted with oil glands; sepals and/or petals sometimes formed into a calyptra. Leaves without obvious oil glands; calyptra usually not formed (except in some Myrtaceae). Stamens 5–numerous, all similar, staminodes absent. Stamens numerous, inner stamens sterile, petaloid, outer stamens fertile. Flowers unisexual; vegetative buds scaly, sharply pointed; stipules present. Flowers bisexual; vegetative buds generally not scaly; stipules absent. Styles free, 2 or more. Style simple. Styles usually 5; leaves alternate; fruit usually fleshy. Styles 2; leaves opposite or apparently whorled; fruit dry. Stamens >10; shrubs or trees, various habitats. Stamens 10 or fewer; herbs or trees, not in rainforest. Fruit ± succulent, drupaceous or a berry; shrubs or trees in rainforest. Fruit dry, capsular; trees, rarely in rainforest. Leaves alternate, toothed. Leaves opposite, entire. Stamens all similar, filaments not jointed. Stamens not all similar, 5 larger, filaments articulated. Herbs; calyx and corolla present; fruit a capsule. Shrubs; perianth in 1 whorl; fruit a berry. Flowers in umbels (sometimes 2-flowered in Xanthosia); carpels usually 2. Flowers not in umbels; carpels variable. Epigynous disc usually swelling at the base of the styles on the fruit; mostly herbs, occasionally small shrubs; glabrous, or if pubescent not stellate-pubescent. Epigynous disc not swelling; shrubs or trees, stellate-pubescent. Flowers minute (1–2 mm long), in leaf axils. Flowers larger and in expanded inflorescences or solitary and terminal. Herbs or subshrubs; corolla blue to purple or red. Shrubs or trees; corolla neither blue to purple nor red. Flowers ± solitary, blue, calyx not pappus-like; widespread, native species. Flowers in dense terminal clusters, calyx pappus-like, flowers red or white; cultivated plants, rarely naturalized. Leaves palmately lobed; stout, curved spines present at most nodes. Leaves not palmately lobed; spines absent. Stamens alternating with the sepals (or perianth segments if only 1 whorl present). Stamens opposite the sepals. Stipules present (sometimes minute); leaves alternate, hairy, hairs often stellate; fruit a capsule. Stipules absent; leaves opposite or subopposite, glabrous or almost so; fruit a drupe. Domatia numerous; ovary 1-locular. Domatia absent; ovary mostly 2–5-locular, rarely 1-locular. Shrubs (sometimes single-stemmed) with stellate hairs; ovary usually 2-locular. Shrubs or trees, glabrous or pubescent with simple or T-shaped hairs; ovary 1–5-locular. Native rainforest species; leaves alternate or opposite with toothed margins; flowers <5 mm long. Garden escapes, not in rainforest; leaves opposite with margins entire or toothed; flowers >8 mm long. Leaves opposite or alternate, glabrous or silvery-hairy on lower surface; fruit blackish, 2–5-locular and many-seeded or if 1-locular and 1-seeded then leaves opposite. Leaves alternate, sparsely hairy on lower surface; fruit red, 1-locular and 1-seeded. Leaves silvery-hairy on lower surface. Leaves opposite or alternate, glabrous on lower surface. Fruit 2–5-locular, many-seeded; leaves either entire or lobed, or if toothed then flowers enclosed by coloured bracts >10 mm long. Fruit 1-locular, 1-seeded; leaves toothed but flowers not enclosed by bracts. Leaves usually with an open sheath that surrounds the stem and a ligule usually present at the top of the sheath although often much reduced; flowers enclosed by a palea and lemma and variously arranged into spikelets. Leaves lacking a sheath and ligule; flowers not enclosed by a palea and lemma and arranged into spikelets. Leaves on adult plants reduced to open sheaths on the aerial stems (sheath sometimes bears a small ± linear lamina). Leaves on adult plants not reduced to open sheaths on the aerial stems. Plants arborescent. Plants herbaceous. Leaves compound. Leaves simple. Stems branched several times; plants with stilt roots. Stems unbranched, or if branched then stilt roots absent. Leaf bases persistent on the stem. Leaf bases not persistent on the stem. Perianth segments <2 cm long; ovary superior; leaves not succulent and spinescent. Perianth segments >2 cm long; ovary inferior or rarely superior; leaves often succulent and/or spinescent. Inflorescence paniculate, spreading; perianth white to yellowish or rarely red; leaves with margins toothed, often spinose and apex spinose. Inflorescence capitate or racemose; perianth red or bright pink; leaves entire, apex not spinose but with a drip tip. Scape usually >1.5 m high; flowers white to yellowish. Scape <1 m high; flowers red. Leaves with reticulate venation; main veins often longitudinal. Leaves with parallel venation. Leaves with petiole as long as or longer than the lamina. Leaves with petiole shorter than the lamina. Flowers in dense cylindrical spikes surrounded by a spathe. Flowers in loose panicles or racemes. Leaves 4–10 cm wide. Leaves <4 cm wide. Inflorescence borne among, or slightly exceeding, the leaves; leaves cauline, differentiated into a circular open sheath that surrounds the stem and the lamina, midrib present; stamen 1. Inflorescence borne on a scape much longer than the leaves, often 1–3 m high; leaves radical, without a circular sheath, dilated at the base; stamens 6. Leaves 2-ranked and with a ligule at junction of sheath and lamina, lateral veins almost parallel to the midrib; anthers with 2 fertile loculi. Leaves not 2-ranked, ligule absent, lateral veins pinnate; anthers with 1 fertile loculus. Inflorescence paniculate, spreading; leaves with margins and apex spinose. Inflorescence capitate or racemose; leaves entire, not spinose. Flowers actinomorphic, perianth red or bright pink. Flowers zygomorphic, perianth white to yellowish, sometimes with darker markings. Leaves well developed, green and scattered along the aerial stem and branches; flowers usually axillary or in small terminal inflorescences; underground stems generally not well developed. Leaves all or mostly basal or reduced and bract-like along the aerial stems; flowers commonly borne on a ± leafless scape; underground stems well developed, usually modified into bulbs, corms, tubers or rhizomes. Mat-forming perennials of damp alpine flats. Plants not forming mats in alpine areas. Stamen 1, fused to the style and stigma to form the column; staminodes sometimes present; one petal (labellum) different from, and more conspicuous than the others. Stamens 3–6; stamens not fused to the style and stigma to form the column; and flowers not modified with one petal different from others. Leaves with a closed basal sheath that encircles the stem; lamina herbaceous, semi-succulent or scleromorphic; ovary superior. Closed sheath absent; leaves scleromorphic or herbaceous; ovary superior or inferior. Fruit usually a capsule, sometimes a nut but then not suspended by filaments; petals coloured; leaves herbaceous or semisucculent, ligule absent. Fruit a nut, may be suspended by persistent anther filaments; petals not differentiated; leaves scleromorphic, scabrous and often ligulate. Leaves with petiole twisted 180°, >10 mm long; ovary inferior. Leaves with petiole <10 mm long or lamina sessile, petiole not conspicuously twisted; ovary superior. Flowers unisexual; leaves scleromorphic. Flowers bisexual (rarely unisexual and then the leaves herbaceous); leaves usually herbaceous, rarely scleromorphic. Filaments densely bearded or with a conspicuous swelling below the anthers; perianth commonly blue, rarely cream; plants >30 cm high. Filaments neither bearded nor with a conspicuous swelling below the anthers; perianth usually cream or lilac; plants usually <30 cm high. Fruit a capsule; flowers in few-flowered cymes or umbels or if solitary then flowers sessile or terminal, rarely axillary and stalked. Fruit a berry; flowers solitary, axillary, stalked. Plants with a corm; leaves either with apex tendril-like or with a tubular sheath encircling the stem and broadening of the basal part of the lamina. Plants rhizomatous; leaves not with apex tendril-like or with a tubular sheath. Either flowers unisexual and in dense spikes (male above, female below), or flowers covered by glume-like bracts. Flowers not unisexual and in dense spikes (male above, female below), or flowers not covered by glume-like bracts. Flowers unisexual and in dense elongated or globose heads; individual flower pedicels not visible; inflorescence axis visible between clusters but not between individual flowers; individual flowers <5 mm diam. Flowers not unisexual and in dense elongated or globose heads; individual flower pedicels visible; inflorescence axis visible between individual flowers; individual flowers >5 mm diam. Inflorescence dense spike-like; male flowers above, female flowers below, ± separated by a portion of stem. Inflorescence of dense globose clusters arranged along the axis; upper clusters male, lower clusters female. Petals 3, yellow, conspicuous when expanded but short-lived; sepals 3; flowers subtended by wide imbricate bracts, massed into a globose head; leaf bases dilated and mostly dark red-brown or blackish. Perianth segments all similar; inflorescence and leaf bases not as above. Perianth segments >4 mm long; fruit a berry; at least bases of leaves silvery-hairy. Perianth segments <3 mm long, membranous or chaffy or perianth lacking; fruit a capsule or a nut; leaf bases green. Perianth members 4 or 6; flowers arranged in dense, convex, button-like heads 6–8 mm diam. on a scape; fruit a capsule. Perianth lacking or represented by hairs or scales; inflorescence not as above; fruit a capsule or nut. Fruit a dehiscent capsule; tufted annuals with filiform leaves dilated at the base. Fruit an indehiscent nut; habit rarely as above, if similar, then the leaves with closed sheaths encircling the stem. Ovary superior. Ovary inferior or half-inferior. Perianth of 4 segments; inflorescence spicate. Perianth of 6 segments in 2 whorls, fused or free; inflorescence variable. Stamen 1; flowers zygomorphic, yellow or white, >1 cm long; inflorescence > 20 cm long, flowers spread along axis. Stamens 4; flowers actinomorphic, greenish, <3 mm long; inflorescence c. 15 cm long, flowers crowded at end of peduncle c. 1–2 m long. Bulbs present. Bulbs absent, rootstock often a rhizome, tuber or corm. Either plants smelling like onions, or inflorescence umbellate. Plants not smelling like onions, inflorescence racemose. Scape with one or more leaves; perianth >9 cm long; bulb >5 cm diam. Scape leafless or only leafy at the base; perianth <6 cm long; bulbs <3 cm diam. All flowers unisexual, arranged in branched cymes, spikes or semi-globose heads. Flowers bisexual, rarely some unisexual flowers present. Carpel solitary. Carpels 3, fused. Perianth greenish to dark red-brown, usually 1–2 mm long; flowers generally in compound cymes or heads; leaves cylindrical, flat or reduced to sheaths. Perianth white or brightly coloured, >2 mm long; inflorescences and leaves not as above. Style divided into 3 or 6 distinct segments. Style simple, sometimes the stigma shallowly lobed. Style divided into 3 segments; inflorescence umbellate on a scape above the basal leaves; leaves <30 cm long; fruit a 3-lobed capsule. Style divided into 6 segments; inflorescence racemose, ± among the leaves; leaves >40 cm long; fruit a 6-lobed berry. Perianth segments fused to form a tube longer than the lobes; flowers usually >2.5 cm long. Perianth segments ± free; flowers generally <2.5 cm long. Flowers terminal, solitary and sessile; plants forming mats in damp alpine flats. Flowers axillary or if terminal then not solitary and sessile; plants not alpine. Flowers either pedicellate in terminal umbels, or in dense clusters on scapes, or in ± sessile heads (perianth often spirally twisted after flowering). Inflorescence racemose, commonly unbranched, flowers, or at least some of them separated, at nodes along the inflorescence axes. Filaments dorsifixed, anthers versatile; either leaves fleshy and with spinose teeth, or leaves ± terete, sometimes channelled above. Filaments attached at or near the base of the anthers, anthers not versatile; leaves flat. Anthers dehiscing by apical pores. Anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Stamens 6. Stamens 3 or fewer. Inflorescence umbellate, rarely flowers solitary on leafless scape; bulbs present. Inflorescence shortly racemose, spicate or the flowers solitary; corms or rhizomes present. Stamens 3, free from the style; perianth variable, but not as below. Stamen 1, fused to the style and stigma to form the column; staminodes sometimes present; one petal (labellum) usually different from, and more conspicuous than the others. Ovary half-inferior; perianth not petaloid, purple-black; underground parts of the plant usually orange or reddish. Ovary inferior; perianth petaloid, generally not purple-black; underground parts of the plant not conspicuously orange or reddish. Ovary and fruit winged; flowers on one side of a once-forked cyme; flowers actinomorphic, perianth blue; leaves often <5 cm long. Ovary and fruit not winged; inflorescence spicate or racemose, rarely cymose or flowers solitary; flowers zygomorphic or actinomorphic, perianth variously coloured, occasionally blue; leaves >5 cm long.