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Flowers and fruits solitary Flowers and fruits in multi-flowered umbellasters (some may be solitary through abortion) Mature crown composed of strongly pruinose, sessile leaves Mature crown composed of non-pruinose, sessile or petiolate leaves Buds and fruits held rigidly erect, mostly sessile Buds and fruits pendulous, on pedicels to 20 mm long Peduncles and pedicels absent Peduncles and/or pedicels prominent Peduncles very broad and flattened Peduncles ± terete Obligate seeder; lignotuber absent; fruits 40–60 mm wide Resprouter; lignotuber present; fruits 20–40 mm wide Adult leaves > 170 mm long; Esperance Plains (WA) only Adult leaves < 170 mm long; Stirling Range to Ragged Range (WA) Adult leaves dull, blue-green; fruits ± smooth Adult leaves glossy, green; fruits 4-winged or prominently ribbed Fruits > 40 mm wide; Eneabba – Badgingarra area (WA) Fruits < 40 mm wide; Little Sandy Desert (WA) Buds and fruits prominently multi-ribbed Buds and fruits prominently 4-winged or 4-ribbed Opercula pyramidal to flattened, much shorter than hypanthia Opercula beaked, longer than hypanthia Adult leaves concolorous or only slightly discolorous Adult leaves distinctly discolorous Umbellasters in branched, usually terminal, compound inflorescences Umbellasters all axillary Peduncles distinctly flattened; south-western WA Peduncles ± terete; eastern and northern Australia Fruits <3 mm wide Fruits >3 mm wide Bark smooth (annually shedding) to ground level Bark rough (not annually shedding) at least on lower trunk Fruit valves prominently exserted Fruit valves at or below rim level Opercula rounded; fruits pedicellate Opercula long-conical; fruits sessile Trunk bark rough, deeply fissured and hard (ironbark) Trunk bark smooth, or rough and fibrous or tessellated Buds and fruits 4-angled Buds and fruits not angled Medium-sized branches smooth-barked; adult leaves dull Medium-sized branches rough-barked; adult leaves glossy Mallee; bark smooth and annually shedding throughout Tree; trunk bark rough (not annually shedding) Fruits truncate-globose to cup-shaped Fruits obconic to barrel-shaped Rough bark tessellated-flaky, grey Rough bark softly fibrous-stringy, reddish-brown Fruits > 8 mm wide Fruits < 8 mm wide Rough bark hard and compact, grey Rough bark stringy or fibrous-flaky, reddish-brown Flowers orange, fruits >30 mm long Flowers white, fruits <20 mm long Branchlets, buds and fruits not pruinose Branchlets, buds and fruits pruinose Adult leaves 10–25 mm wide; trunk bark papery-flaky Adult leaves 20–45 mm wide; trunk bark fibrous-stringy or papery-flaky Bark rough and not annually shedding up to branches Bark smooth and annually shedding over most of trunk Fruits barrel-shaped; valves deeply enclosed Fruits cup-shaped to obconic; valves at rim level or exserted Adult leaves very glossy, dark green Adult leaves dull, paler green Buds globular; south-western WA Buds ovoid to diamond-shaped; eastern Australia Smooth bark evenly shedding in long strips, not granular Smooth bark unevenly shedding in plates and short strips, somewhat granular Opercula long-beaked, > 2 x as long as hypanthia Opercula conical, about as long as hypanthia Seeds black, with prominently toothed edges Seeds brown, smooth-edged Juvenile leaves 15–30 mm wide; peduncles weakly to moderately flattened; Nowra in NSW north to Gympie in Qld Juvenile leaves 20–50 mm wide; peduncles more strongly flattened; Carnarvon Range area in Qld Adult leaves 15–25 mm wide; fruits not angular, 4–6 mm wide Adult leaves mostly 20–40 mm wide; fruits angular, 4.5–8 mm wide Juvenile leaves ovate to orbicular; bark completely shedding Juvenile leaves lanceolate; bark often non-shedding for several metres at base of trunk Juvenile leaves ovate, apically apiculate; adult leaves dull to slightly glossy; Picton to Singleton in NSW Juvenile leaves orbicular, apically rounded; adult leaves moderately glossy; Armidale in NSW to Wallangarra in Qld Fruit valves incurved; branchlets often pruinose Fruit valves erect; branchlets not pruinose Valves enclosed or below rim level Valves protruding above rim level Peduncles broadly flattened Peduncles terete or angular Buds and fruits sessile; fruit valve tips not joined across the orifice Buds and fruits pedicellate; fruit valves tips joined across the orifice Opercula much longer than hypanthia Opercula equal to or shorter than hypanthia Adult leaves dull, blue-green Adult leaves dull or glossy, green Stamens arranged in four distinct groups Stamens arranged in a continuous ring Adult leaves with very numerous oil glands; south-west WA Adult leaves with few visible oil glands; eastern Australia Opercula hemispherical; branchlets often pruinose Opercula conical; branchlets not pruinose Juvenile leaves ovate to lanceolate ; widespread, including Helidon Hills in Qld Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate; Helidon Hills in Qld Peduncles terete; opercula rounded; south-west WA Peduncles flattened; opercula rounded to beaked to long-conical; eastern and northern Australia Opercula more than twice as long as hypanthia Opercula less than twice as long as hypanthia Buds 6–8 mm wide; fruit disc level to descending Buds 5–6 mm wide; fruit disc ascending or annular Bark smooth and annually shedding on branches; Timor and adjacent islands Bark rough and non-shedding on branches; Australia and New Guinea Adult leaves 30–60 mm wide; peduncles 12–30 mm long; pedicels 4–12 mm long, far north Qld and New Guinea Adult leaves 15–40 mm wide; peduncles 5–15 mm long; pedicels 0–8 mm long; NSW Fruits 7–11 mm long and wide; adult leaves 20–50 mm wide Fruits 10–13 mm long x 9–18 mm wide; adult leaves 35–70 mm wide Fruits <10 mm wide Fruits >10 mm wide Inflorescences mostly or entirely in terminal panicles Inflorescences mostly or entirely in axillary umbellasters Trunk bark rough, hard and deeply fissured (ironbark) Trunk bark smooth, or rough and finely fissured (not an ironbark) Crown composed mostly or entirely of sessile juvenile leaves Crown composed mostly or entirely of petiolate adult leaves Fruits 3–7 mm long; crown leaves 20–50 mm wide Fruits 6–10 mm long; crown leaves 30–100 mm wide Buds and fruits 4-ribbed and square in cross section Buds and fruits smooth, terete in cross section Branchlets, buds and immature fruits pruinose Branchlets, buds and immature fruits not pruinose Pedicels >6 mm long Pedicels <6 mm long Pedicels <7.5 mm long; Qld Pedicels >7.5 mm long; NSW Opercula elongated, longer than hypanthia Opercula equal to or shorter than hypanthia Buds and fruits not pruinose Buds and/or fruits pruinose Adult leaves distinctly glossy Adult leaves not glossy, ± dull Flowers with all filaments fertile (having anthers) Flowers with outer filaments lacking anthers (staminodes) Fruit valves at or below rim level Fruit valves exserted above rim level Fruits hemispherical Fruits obconic or barrel-shaped Fruits 6–13 mm long x 5–10 mm wide Fruits 4–7 mm long x 4–6 mm wide Fruits barrel-shaped; juvenile leaves linear to lanceolate Fruits obconic; juvenile leaves ovate to lanceolate Juvenile leaves ovate; adult leaves 15–35 mm wide Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate; adult leaves 7–16 mm wide Branchlets, buds and immature fruits pruinose Branchlets, buds and immature fruits not pruinose Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate; fruits 3–5 mm wide; WA and NT Juvenile leaves lanceolate to orbicular; fruits 4–8 mm wide; NSW and Qld Pedicels 5–12 mm long; fruits longer than broad Pedicels 2–6 mm long; fruits about as long as broad Juvenile leaves 35–80 mm wide; adult leaves 80–160 mm long x 14–34 mm wide; opercula rounded or acute; western slopes of Atherton Tableland in Qld Juvenile leaves 20–40 mm wide; adult leaves 60–120 mm long x 12–20 mm wide; opercula acute; inland plains from near Jericho to Hughenden area in Qld Flowers with all filaments fertile (having anthers) Flowers with outer filaments lacking anthers (staminodes) Opercula conical, equal to or longer than hypanthia Opercula rounded to conical, shorter than hypanthia Buds > 4.5 mm wide; fruits > 7 mm wide Buds < 4.5 mm wide; fruits < 7 mm wide Forest tree to 45 m tall; juvenile leaves ovate Tree or mallee to 8 m tall; juvenile leaves orbicular Medium branches smooth-barked Medium branches rough-barked Leaves lemon-scented Leaves not lemon-scented Fruits with a broad conspicuous disc Fruits lacking a broad conspicuous disc Fruit valves exserted Fruit valves at or below rim level Juvenile leaves linear to lanceolate, 4–30 mm wide; outer branches (up to 60 mm diam.) smooth-barked Juvenile leaves broad-lanceolate to ovate, 22–70 mm wide; smooth bark absent or confined to branches <25 mm diam. Juvenile leaves grey-green, linear, 4–8 mm wide; Isla Gorge in Qld Juvenile leaves green, lanceolate, 14–30 mm wide; Helidon Hills in Qld Juvenile leaves broad-lanceolate, 30–70 mm wide; northern NSW Juvenile leaves ovate, 22–40 mm wide; southern Qld Adult leaves appearing to lack an intramarginal vein Adult leaves with a clearly visible intramarginal vein Juvenile leaves ovate; fruits 5–7 mm wide; Townsville area in Qld Juvenile leaves linear to lanceolate; fruits 2.5–6 mm wide; widespread, including Townsville area in Qld Fruits 3.5–6 mm wide Fruits 2.5–3.5 mm wide Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate; pedicels 1–7 mm long, distinct from fruits Juvenile leaves lanceolate to ovate; pedicels 3–9 mm long, tapering to fruits Fruits 4–6 mm wide Fruits 5–7 mm wide Juvenile leaves lanceolate; adult leaves grey-green to blue-grey, sometimes pruinose; southern Qld Juvenile leaves ovate; adult leaves green to grey-green, not pruinose; NSW and far south-east Qld Fruits 4–5 mm wide Fruits 5–7 mm wide Crown composed mostly or entirely of sessile juvenile leaves Crown composed mostly or entirely of petiolate adult leaves Adult leaves ovate to orbicular Adult leaves linear to lanceolate Fruit valves at rim level or exserted Fruit valves below rim level Buds and fruits not pruinose Buds and fruits pruinose Fruits 2–4 mm long; adult leaves very glossy, bright green Fruits 4–9 mm long; adult leaves dull or glossy, green to greyish Leaves dull, green to grey-green; fruits barrel-shaped to obconic Leaves glossy, green to blue-green; fruits obconic Adult leaves 23–50 mm wide; fruits 4–7 mm wide Adult leaves 30–65 mm wide; fruits 5–9 mm wide Fruit valves visible at rim level or exserted Fruit valves enclosed or below rim level Bark non-shedding to small branches Bark shedding, at least on medium branches Buds and fruits sessile Buds and fruits pedicellate Adult leaves glossy, green Adult leaves dull, green to grey-green Woodland tree or mallee; northern Australia Forest tree; NSW Fruits cup-shaped to hemispherical, 3–5 mm long, valves strongly exserted Fruits obconic to cup-shaped to barrel-shaped, 4–11 mm long, valves at rim level to exserted Fruits obconic, pruinose Fruits cup-shaped to barrel-shaped, pruinose or not Fruits > 6 mm long; WA Fruits < 6 mm long; Qld Fruit disc level Fruit disc usually descending Fruits equidimensional; Pilbara region of WA Fruits longer than wide; Kimberley WA to Cape York Peninsula Qld Fruits 7–11 mm long; adult leaves 100–250 mm long; Cape York Peninsula and southwards in Qld Fruits 5–9 mm long; adult leaves 80–150 mm long; Kimberley in WA east to Cloncurry area in Qld Bark rough and non-shedding on trunk Bark smooth and shedding throughout Bark shedding, at least on larger branches Bark non-shedding to small branches Fruits obconic Fruits barrel-shaped to cup-shaped Fruits longer than wide; pedicels 2–6 mm long; eastern Australia Fruits equidimensional; pedicels 1–3 mm long; northern Australia Adult leaves blue-grey Adult leaves green Juvenile leaves linear; fruits not thin-walled; northern Australia Juvenile leaves ovate; fruits thin-walled; tropical Australia Flowers with outer filaments lacking anthers (staminodes) Flowers with all filaments fertile (having anthers) Woodland tree; Qld Forest tree; NSW Leaves very glossy Leaves dull to slightly glossy Forest tree; juvenile leaves broad-lanceolate; NSW Woodland tree; juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate; Qld Outer opercula retained until anthesis (operculum scar present) Outer opercula shed early in bud development (operculum scar absent) Fruits obconic Fruits cylindrical to barrel-shaped to cup-shaped Mallee; adult leaves very glossy, green Tree; adult leaves dull, green to grey-green Trunk with a distinct stocking of dark, non-shedding bark Trunk lacking a distinct stocking of dark, non-shedding bark Fruits < 5 mm long x < 4 mm wide; NSW Fruits > 5 mm long x > 4 mm wide; SA and Vic Adult leaves mostly dull Adult leaves mostly glossy Flowers with all filaments fertile (having anthers) Flowers with outer filaments lacking anthers (staminodes) Branchlets, buds and young fruits pruinose Branchlets, buds and fruits not pruinose Tree with bark smooth and shedding throughout Tree with rough and persistent bark on trunk, or mallee Adult leaves 18–43 mm wide; fruits 6–14 mm long; juvenile leaves ovate to orbicular Adult leaves 5–25 mm wide; fruits 3–9 mm long; juvenile leaves linear to lanceolate Tree or mallee; juvenile leaves lanceolate to ovate; adult leaves 8–25 mm wide Mallee; juvenile leaves linear to lanceolate; adult leaves 5–20 mm wide Fruits 2–3 mm long x 2–3 mm wide; Cape York Peninsula Qld Fruits 3–11 mm long x 3–10 mm wide; not on Cape York Peninsula Qld Leaves green; persistent bark finely-textured Leaves bluish; persistent bark moderately-textured Adult leaves 10–20 mm wide; Juvenile leaves ovate-lanceolate Adult leaves 6–15 mm wide; Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate Fruits 4–7 mm wide; juvenile leaves lanceolate Fruits 6–10 mm wide; juvenile leaves ovate Fruits 3–5 mm long x 3–4 mm wide Fruits 4.5–10 mm long x 3.5–8 mm wide Adult leaves with oil glands very sparse; fruiting peduncles and pedicels slender Adult leaves with oil glands scattered to moderately dense; fruiting peduncles and pedicels thickened Adult leaves mostly 10–26 mm wide; fruits barrel-shaped Adult leaves mostly 25–45 mm wide; fruits cylindrical or slightly barrel-shaped to urceolate or slightly campanulate Flowers with all filaments fertile (having anthers) Flowers with outer filaments lacking anthers (staminodes) Fruits distinctly 4-ribbed and square in cross section Fruits smooth or angular Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-elliptic; adult leaves mostly 4–16 mm wide Juvenile leaves ovate; adult leaves mostly 16–55 mm wide Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate to narrow-elliptic; adult leaves 7–20 mm wide Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate to narrow-elliptic; adult leaves 3–15 mm wide Juvenile leaves linear; adult leaves mostly 4–8 mm wide Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate to narrow-elliptic; adult leaves mostly 5–15 mm wide Adult leaves 50–80 mm long; sandy or loamy flats and low rises in south-east of S.A. and Wimmera of Vic Adult leaves 60–130 mm long; stony to clayey sites on Eyre Peninsula, Flinders Ranges, and ridges to the east in SA Tree Multi-stemmed mallee Adult leaves 15–65 mm wide; fruits >4 mm wide Adult leaves 10–20 mm wide; fruits <4 mm wide Fruit pedicels 2–6 mm long; central Australia Fruit pedicels <2 mm long; southern Australia Fruits >6 mm long, >5 mm wide Fruits <6 mm long, <5 mm wide Tree Multi-stemmed mallee Bark rough on lower trunk; fruits > 5 mm wide Bark usually completely smooth; fruits < 5 mm wide Fruits <5 mm long, <4 mm wide Fruits >5 mm long, >4 mm wide Flowers crimson; SA Flowers white; WA Fruits 7–10 mm long x 5–10 mm wide Fruits 5–7 mm long x 4–5 mm wide Fruit disc vertically descending; juvenile leaves deltoid, grey-green. Fruit disc obliquely descending; juvenile leaves ovate, green. Bark ‘minniritchi’ type (shedding in thin, longitudinal, reddish strips which remain partly attached and reveal greenish-yellow smooth bark beneath) Bark not ‘minniritchi’ type Buds and fruits pendulous; flowers pink to red; fruits urceolate Buds and fruits held erect; flowers white to pale yellow; fruits not urceolate Crown leaves with apiculate apex Crown leaves with rounded to emarginate apex Branchlets, buds and young fruits pruinose Branchlets, buds and young fruits not pruinose Opercula rounded, <7 mm long Opercula conical to beaked, >7 mm long Fruits >7 mm wide; Branchlets, leaves, buds and fruits pruinose Fruits <7 mm wide; Branchlets, leaves, buds and fruits not or lightly pruinose Opercula >3 times as long as wide Opercula <3 times as long as wide Umbellasters mostly >3-flowered Umbellasters mostly 3-flowered Peduncles and pedicels absent (or extremely short and obscure) Peduncles and/or pedicels present Juvenile leaves, buds and fruits pruinose Juvenile leaves, buds and fruits not pruinose Mallee; lignotuber present; leaves blue-green Tree; lignotuber absent; leaves green Fruits >15 mm wide Fruits <15 mm wide Fruits mostly >20 mm wide (including any ornamentation) Fruits mostly <20 mm wide Bud peduncles prominently flattened Bud peduncles terete or angular Adult leaves opposite or sub-opposite; stamens in 4 bundles Adult leaves disjunct; stamens in a continuous ring Buds and fruits prominently ribbed Buds and fruits not ribbed Fruits with prominent lobes from the back of the valves Fruits lacking valve lobes Flowers yellow; leaves blue-green Flowers white; leaves green Fruits 30–70 mm wide Fruits 15–45 mm wide Fruits longer than wide; pedicels > 20 mm long Fruits wider than long; pedicels < 20 mm long Fruits smooth or finely striated Fruits coarsely ribbed or winged Leaves green; Wheatbelt and goldfields of WA Leaves blue-green; Little Sandy Desert WA Buds and fruits held ± erect Buds and fruits pendulous Branchlets, buds and fruits pruinose Branchlets, buds and fruits not pruinose Flowers with stamens arranged in 4 distinct bundles; fruits often with remnant sepals Flowers arranged in a ± continuous ring; fruits lacking remnant sepals Trees; bark persistent to small branches; northern Australia Mallees, bark mostly smooth; central and south-western Australia Bark soft, flaky-fibrous, orange; fruits <10 mm wide Bark stringy-fibrous, grey; fruits >10 mm wide Mature buds smooth or faintly ribbed, <10 mm wide; sepals <3 mm long Mature buds strongly ribbed, >10 mm wide; sepals >5 mm long Fruits with a broad, level disc Fruits with a descending disc Juvenile leaves glabrous, mostly connate; seeds saucer-shaped; buds with minute free sepals; branchlets lacking pith glands Juvenile leaves hairy, not connate; seeds pyramidal; buds lacking free sepals; branchlets with pith glands Mature crown of greyish, pruinose, ovate to lanceolate leaves Mature crown of green, non-pruinose, lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate leaves Branchlets and young fruits pruinose Branchlets and young fruits not pruinose Juvenile leaves sessile; adult leaves <20 mm wide Juvenile leaves petiolate; adult leaves >20 mm wide Adult leaves ovate to elliptic, 25–70 mm wide; fruits 14–22 mm wide Adult leaves broad-lanceolate to ovate, 15–35 mm wide; fruits 8–15 mm wide Juvenile leaves sessile or subsessile; adult leaves 6–22 mm wide Juvenile leaves petiolate; adult leaves 15–75 mm wide Adult leaves dull, green to grey-green Adult leaves glossy, green Fruits < 12 mm wide, ± square in cross section Fruits > 12 mm wide, round in cross section Fruits sessile or with pedicels <3 mm long Fruits distinctly pedicellate (pedicels mostly > 3 mm long) Peduncles distinctly flattened Peduncles terete, angular or slightly flattened Buds and fruits terete Buds and fruits angled to square in cross section Opercula much longer than hypanthia Opercula equal to or shorter than hypanthia Buds and fruits not square, unribbed or 2-angled from pedicel Buds and fruits ± square and strongly 3- or 4-ribbed from pedicel Pith glands absent; trees; adult leaves dull to glossy; SA, Vic and NSW Pith glands present; trees or mallees; adult leaves very glossy; WA Bark rough, hard, deeply fissured, nearly black (ironbark) Bark smooth or finely to moderately fissured Stamens all fertile Outer stamens lacking anthers (staminodes) Juvenile leaves sessile; fruits 6–15 mm wide, lacking ribs; not on Eyre Peninsula in SA Juvenile leaves petiolate; fruits 10–15 mm wide, often with 2 opposite ribs; Eyre Peninsula in SA Trees; lignotuber absent Mallees; lignotuber present Opercula conical to beaked, apiculate Opercula rounded to flattened, not apiculate Fruits cup-shaped, distinctly many-ribbed (>5 ribs per fruit) Fruits obconic, with a few ribs only (<5 ribs per fruit) Opercula long-conical to beaked Opercula rounded to flattened Opercula flattened, smooth or weakly ribbed Opercula rounded, prominently ribbed Branchlets pruinose Branchlets not pruinose Buds pruinose Buds not pruinose Opercula warty Opercula smooth Bud hypanthia ribbed Bud hypanthia smooth Bark stringy-fibrous to small branches Bark not stringy-fibrous to small branches Crown leaves not pruinose Crown leaves pruinose Mature crown composed partly or entirely of sessile, juvenile leaves Mature crown composed only of petiolate, adult leaves Juvenile leaves (present in the mature canopy, with or without adult leaves) connate, 5–8 mm wide Juvenile leaves (present in the mature canopy, with or without adult leaves) not connate, 6–15 mm wide Fruits 9–15 mm wide; crown (juvenile) leaves crenulate; Tas Fruits 6–11 mm wide; crown leaves not crenulate; NSW Fruit valves below rim level Fruit valves exserted above rim level Buds and fruits sessile; NSW and Vic Buds and fruits on short pedicels; Tas Fruits pendulous; peduncles 5–25 mm long Fruits held erect; peduncles 3–10 mm long Opercula flush with hypanthia at join; alpine Opercula slightly wider than hypanthia at join; coastal Juvenile leaves petiolate; smooth bark shed in plates and short strips; north-western Australia Juvenile leaves sessile; smooth bark shed in long strips and ribbons; south-eastern Australia Multi-stemmed mallee Tree Bark persistent and non-shedding on trunk Bark smooth and shedding over most or all of trunk Fruits ovoid; Snowy Mountains NSW and Vic Fruits campanulate; Araluen area NSW Stems on juvenile plants and coppice growth terete; adult leaves 8–24 mm wide; fruits 5–7 mm wide; widespread Stems on juvenile plants and coppice growth quadrangular; adult leaves 15–35 mm wide; fruits 6–8 mm wide; Mt Canobolas NSW only Adult leaves glossy green Adult leaves dull, green to greyish Crown leaves <35 mm long Crown leaves >40 mm long Crown leaves <8 mm wide; NSW Crown leaves >8 mm wide; Tas Buds minutely warty Buds not warty (but may be ribbed) Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Fruits >9 mm wide Fruits <9 mm wide Juvenile leaves glossy, green; fruits 7–10 mm long; Tas Juvenile leaves dull, green to grey-green; fruits 12–17 mm long; WA Forest tree, 15–60+ m tall Small tree or mallee, <15 m tall Bark rough and compact-fibrous on lower half of trunk; adult leaves 10–20 mm wide; fruits 4–6 mm wide Bark smooth throughout or with a short stocking of loose, rough bark; adult leaves 10–45 mm wide; fruits 5–9 mm wide Juvenile leaves dull, grey-green; smooth bark dull, pale-coloured, white to grey; Tas and mainland Australia Juvenile leaves glossy, green; smooth bark somewhat shiny, colourful, grey-green to yellow-orange; Tas Fruit valves at rim level or below; Tas Fruit valves exserted above rim level; Tas and mainland Australia Tree; valves erect; Tas Mallee; valves incurved; mainland Australia Juvenile leaves orbicular, dull, grey-green; Nunniong Plateau area Vic Juvenile leaves elliptical-ovate, glossy, green; Mt Imlay NSW Fruit disc ascending Fruit disc level to descending Opercula rounded to conical Opercula strongly beaked Juvenile leaves sessile, ovate to orbicular; smooth bark shed in long strips and ribbons; fruits sessile; Nunniong Plateau area, Vic Juvenile leaves petiolate, broad-lanceolate; smooth bark shed in plates and short strips; fruits sessile or shortly pedicellate; northern NSW and north-western Australia Smooth bark powdery; opercula rounded to bluntly conical; north-western Australia Smooth bark not powdery; opercula sharply conical; Nandewar Range area in northern NSW Fruits >12 mm wide Fruits <12 mm wide Bark non-shedding on lower stems, or dull, cream to grey and shedding in plates; WA and SA Bark smooth throughout, somewhat glossy, often colourful, shedding in long strips; NSW Adult leaves >10 mm wide Adult leaves <10 mm wide Fruits sessile Fruits pedicellate Flowers orange Flowers not orange All parts non-pruinose All adult parts strongly pruinose Bark not stringy-fibrous to smaller branches (not stringybark) Bark stringy-fibrous to smaller branches (stringybark) Fruits with multiple, prominent longitudinal ribs Fruits smooth or with a few weak ribs Juvenile leaves opposite for at least 10 nodes; adult leaf reticulation moderate to dense; seeds reddish brown Juvenile leaves disjunct after a few nodes; adult leaf reticulation sparse to very sparse; seeds brown-black Fruits >13 mm wide; southern WA Fruits <11 mm wide; eastern Australia Adult leaves distinctly bluish Adult leaves green Juvenile leaves ovate to orbicular, to 60 mm wide Juvenile leaves lanceolate, <25 mm wide Juvenile leaves persisting beyond node 20; fruit disc 0.5–1 mm wide, descending Juvenile leaves becoming disjunct early (before node 15); fruit disc 1–2 mm wide, level to ascending Intermediate leaves subsessile, with petioles 0–5 mm long; NSW Intermediate leaves petiolate, with petioles 4–10 mm long; Qld Fruit disc <1 mm wide, steeply depressed and not readily visible Fruit disc >1 mm wide, level to moderately depressed and clearly visible Fruits <6 mm long, <6 mm wide, with slender pedicels Fruits >6 mm long, >6 mm wide, with thick pedicels Intermediate leaves subsessile; petioles 0–1 mm long Intermediate leaves petiolate; petioles 4–9 mm long Flower buds ± sessile; fruits sessile and crowded Flower buds ± pedicellate; fruits pedicellate Branchlets and buds pruinose Branchlets and buds not pruinose Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate Juvenile leaves lanceolate to ovate Fruits hemispherical Fruits globose or flattened-globose Adult leaves 60–150 mm long, 6–18 mm wide Adult leaves 40–90 mm long, 6–13 mm wide Adult leaves mostly <16 mm wide Adult leaves mostly >16 mm wide Flower buds fusiform Flower buds ovoid to clavate Fruits tightly clustered and flat-sided towards base due to crowding Fruits clustered but not flat-sided Adult leaves green Adult leaves with a bluish sheen Adult leaves relatively thin, length:breadth ratio <3:1 Adult leaves relatively thick, length:breadth ratio >3:1 Flower buds angular Flower buds not angular Tree to 20 m tall; adult leaf length:breadth ratio >3:1 Mallee or poorly formed tree to 10 m tall; adult leaf length:breadth ratio <3:1 Intermediate leaves orbicular; fruits 10–15 mm wide, sessile Intermediate leaves oblong or elliptic; fruits 7–13 mm wide, sessile or on pedicels to 5 mm long Juvenile leaves ovate; fruits 8–12 mm wide; western Wollemi area NSW Juvenile leaves cordate; fruits 6–9 mm wide; Sydney basin area NSW Fruit valves prominently exserted; tree to 30 m tall Fruit valves around rim level but not prominently exserted; tree or mallee to 10 m tall Bark smooth and shedding on branches; Grampians Vic only Bark rough and non-shedding on branches Opercula sharply conical Opercula hemispherical to bluntly conical Fruits 4–10 mm wide; adult leaves 8–35 mm wide; northern NSW and Qld Fruits 7–18 mm; adult leaves 15–55 mm wide; southern NSW, Vic and SA Fruits 6–10 mm wide Fruits 4–7 mm wide Opercula conical; Yalwal area NSW Opercula rounded; SA, Vic and Eden area NSW Buds not warty; fruit disc slightly ascending Buds warty; fruit disc steeply ascending Fruits barrel-shaped; valves enclosed Fruits globose to cup-shaped; valves exserted or visible near rim level Fruits <13 mm wide; eastern Australia Fruits >15 mm wide; WA Juvenile leaves glossy, green; fruits 5–11 mm long; crown green; widespread from NSW/Qld border southwards Juvenile leaves dull, grey-green; fruits 10–13 mm long; crown appearing blue-green; Blackdown Tableland Qld only Umbellasters paired Umbellasters single Adult leaves slightly discolorous Adult leaves concolorous Fruit valves half to twice as long as fruit hypanthia, erect to recurved Fruit valves less than half the height of the fruit hypanthia, incurved to erect Opercula rostrate Opercula hemispherical to conical Flower buds angular Flower buds not angular Bark smooth and shedding on medium to small branches Bark rough and non-shedding on medium to small branches Fruits 9–13 mm wide Fruits 4–9 mm wide Fruits pedicellate, loosely clustered, 6–9 mm wide, valves around rim level or exserted above rim Fruits sessile or very shortly pedicellate, tightly clustered, 4–8 mm wide, valves around rim level Juvenile leaves narrow-elliptic; poorly-formed tree to 8 m tall; lowland swamps Juvenile leaves ovate-lanceolate; well-formed tree to 40 m tall; mountainous terrain Adult leaves with length:width <3:1 Adult leaves with length:width >3:1 Opercula distinctly longer than hypanthia Opercula shorter than or equal to hypanthia Bud and fruit hypanthia fused into a single woody infructescence Bud and fruit hypanthia free Peduncles flattened in bud Peduncles terete in bud Peduncles 10–28 mm wide; opercula 8–21 mm wide at base Peduncles 5–12 mm wide; opercula 3–10 mm wide at base Obligate seeder; lignotuber absent; infructescences 44–52 mm diam. Resprouter; lignotuber present; infructescences 32–46 mm diam. Adult leaves obovate to spathulate, >12 mm wide, often retuse at tip Adult leaves linear to narrowly spathulate, <12 mm wide, acuminate at tip Obligate seeder; lignotuber absent; opercula straight or weakly curved near tip, 50–60 mm long. Resprouter; lignotuber present; opercula sinuous, 50–95 mm long Peduncles flattened Peduncles terete or angular Fruits on pendulous or strongly down-curved peduncles Fruits held erect or loosely horizontal on peduncles Peduncles thickened, distally >10 mm wide; flowers yellow-green Peduncles not thickened, distally <10 mm wide; flowers cream, yellow or red, but not greenish Opercula slightly to prominently warty Opercula smooth Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder; opercula prominently warty Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter; opercula slightly warty Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Leaf oil glands prominent and numerous, obscuring tertiary venation Leaf oil glands few, not obscuring tertiary venation Fruit valves erect and extending far above fruit rim Fruit valves at or below rim level Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder. Stamens inflexed in bud Stamens erect in bud Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Adult leaves orbicular to elliptic Adult leaves elliptic to narrow-lanceolate Flowers red; fruit valves mostly 5 or 6 Flowers yellow; fruit valves mostly 4 Opercula rounded at tip Opercula apiculate Branchlets and buds pruinose Branchlets and buds not pruinose Fruits 9–18 mm wide Fruits 6–10 mm wide Buds 18–27 mm long; opercula 10–20 mm long Buds 25–40 mm long; opercula 20–33 mm long Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder; umbellasters 7-flowered Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter; umbellasters 7–11-flowered Opercula > twice as long as hypanthia; fruits campanulate Opercula < twice as long as hypanthia; fruits obconic to globose Bark rough on trunk Bark smooth and shedding throughout Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder; buds and immature fruits pruinose Tree or mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter; buds and immature fruits not pruinose Fruits >12 mm long. Fruits <12 mm long All stamens inflexed in bud Some or all stamens erect in bud Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Seeds yellow-brown, pitted like honeycomb; bark rough on lower half of stems, becoming ribbony above Seeds brown, not pitted like honeycomb; bark smooth Fruit disc level to ascending; seeds compressed-ovoid, finely reticulate Fruit disc descending; seeds ± spherical, smooth Flowers lemon-yellow; fruits cup-shaped to campanulate Flowers white to cream; fruits obconic to barrel-shaped Mallet or marlock; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Adult leaves linear Adult leaves elliptic to broad-lanceolate Fruit pedicels well-defined, ± terete; fruits smooth; adult leaves 2–7 mm wide Fruit pedicels tapering, ± flattened; fruits 2-angled near base; adult leaves 5–18 mm wide Opercula narrower than hypanthia at join Opercula equal in width to hypanthia at join Adult leaves dull, blue-green Adult leaves glossy, green Bark rough, dark and firm on lower stems; seedling leaves with rough margins Bark smooth throughout (or ribbony); seedling leaves glabrous Mallet; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Tree or mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Opercula c. twice as long as hypathia Opercula 2-4 x as long as hypathia Bark rough on lower trunk; adult leaves 7–15 mm wide Bark completely smooth; adult leaves 10–20 mm wide Adult leaves glossy, green Adult leaves dull, bluish to grey-green Adult leaves >10 mm wide Adult leaves <10 mm wide Juvenile leaves hairy Juvenile leaves glabrous Branchlets pruinose Branchlets not pruinose Tree; combination resprouter Mallee; lignotuber resprouter Adult leaves glossy, green Adult leaves dull, green to blue-green or purplish Opercula >15 mm long; juvenile leaves glossy, green Opercula <15 mm long; juvenile leaves dull, green to blue-green Adult leaves all held erect, 6–16 mm wide Adult leaves not all held erect, 12–30 mm wide Opercula 9–16 mm long Opercula 15–30 mm long Opercula bluntly pointed and not hooked Opercula sharply attenuate, often hooked Adult leaves maturing green, adult new growth green to yellow-green Adult leaves maturing blue-green to purplish, adult new growth blue-green Adult leaves mostly 15–25 mm wide; west from Ravensthorpe area in southern WA Adult leaves mostly 8–18 mm; east from Lort River area southern WA Adult leaves 10–25 mm wide Adult leaves 4–10 mm wide Fruit disc level to descending and obscured Fruit disc level to ascending or annular and conspicuous Whipstick mallee; adult leaves mostly <10 mm wide; southern WA only Tree or robust mallee; adult leaves mostly >20 mm wide; widespread Stamens cream-white, free for whole length Stamens aging to pink, united in a ring near the base Branchlets erect; leaves <80 mm long Branchlets pendulous; leaves >100 mm long Fruit disc annular, clearly demarcated from base of valves Fruit disc not annular, not clearly demarcated from base of valves Buds pruinose Buds not pruinose Adult leaves lanceolate to broad-lanceolate, 100–260 mm long, mostly 30–50 mm wide Adult leaves lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, 65–200 mm long, 10–30 mm wide Opercula about 1.5 times as long as hypanthia Opercula about 3 times as long as hypanthia Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate; adult leaves 10–30 mm wide Juvenile leaves ovate to broad-lanceolate; adult leaves 10–20 mm wide Buds pruinose Buds not pruinose Well-formed tree; fruit disc level to ascending Poorly formed tree or mallee; fruit disc steeply ascending Seeds yellowish, smooth Seeds black, usually toothed Bark rough and non-shedding on trunk(s) Bark smooth and shedding throughout Juvenile leaves ovate to orbicular Juvenile leaves linear to lanceolate Rough bark loosely held; eastern Australia Rough bark tightly held; southern WA Juvenile leaves linear Juvenile leaves lanceolate to ovate Leaves, buds and fruits initially pruinose All parts non-pruinose Fruits 7–10 mm long; adult leaves green Fruits 4–8 mm long; adult leaves green to greyish Tree; bark rough and non-shedding to branches Tree or mallee; bark rough and non-shedding on lower stems only Fruit disc steeply ascending; sandplains Fruit disc flat to moderately ascending; rocky hillslopes Tree Mallee Juvenile leaves orbicular, glossy, green; adult leaves green Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate to orbicular, dull, green to blue-green; adult leaves green to blue-green Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate; small tree, sometimes multi-trunked and mallee-like Juvenile leaves broad-lanceolate to orbicular; small to large, single-trunked tree Opercula 5–11 mm long, straight-sided conical Opercula 5–22 mm long, usually swollen at base Juvenile leaves ovate to orbicular; Flinders Ranges area in SA, Warwick area in southern Qld, and Hunter Valley in NSW Juvenile leaves lanceolate; central Australia, Mt Isa area and Glasshouse Mountains Qld Bark dull; adult leaves dull, green to blue-green; SA Bark somewhat shiny; adult leaves glossy, green; NSW and Qld Stamens erect; opercula horn-shaped; Qld Stamens inflexed; opercula bluntly conical; NSW Umbellasters 9–13-flowered; Glasshouse Mountains Qld Umbellasters 7-flowered; not in Glasshouse Mountains Qld Fruits 6–12 mm wide; disc steeply ascending Fruits 4–8 mm wide; disc level to slightly ascending Opercula bluntly conical; juvenile leaves broad-lanceolate; NT, WA and SA Opercula sharply conical; juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate; Qld Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate, mostly <25 mm wide; mainly east of line from Narromine to West Wyalong in NSW Juvenile leaves ovate, mostly >25 mm wide; mainly west of line from Narromine to West Wyalong in NSW Fruits longer than wide Fruits wider than long Branchlets pruinose Branchlets not pruinose Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Branches pendulous; flowers lemon yellow Branches not pendulous; flowers cream to creamy yellow Fruits globose, >8 mm wide Fruits barrel-shaped to urceolate, <8 mm wide Mature crown composed partly or entirely of sessile, juvenile leaves Mature crown composed only of petiolate, adult leaves Leaves 38–61 mm long; fruits 6–9 mm long, <9 mm wide Leaves 55–85 mm long; fruits 9–11 mm long, >9 mm wide Juvenile leaves decurrent Juvenile leaves not decurrent Opercula conical; seedling phyllotaxis spiral Opercula long-beaked; seedling phyllotaxis decussate Adult leaves not pruinose Adult leaves strongly pruinose Bark persistent on lower trunk(s) Bark smooth and shedding throughout Buds 18–24 mm long; pedicels 7–12 mm long; fruits 8–11 mm wide Buds 10–19 mm long; pedicels 2–7.5 mm long; fruits 5–9 mm wide Umbellasters pendulous; adult leaves 18–44 mm wide; buds 5–7 mm wide Umbellasters erect; adult leaves 11–23 mm wide; buds 4–5 mm wide Mallet; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Tree or mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Buds and fruits not ribbed Buds and fruits ribbed Bark persistent and non-shedding on trunk; adult leaves dull, blue-green Bark smooth and shedding throughout; adult leaves glossy, green Fruits urceolate; juvenile leaves sessile and decurrent Fruits barrel-shaped; juvenile leaves petiolate Fruits usually ribbed, relatively large Fruits consistently smooth, relatively small Fruits with style remnants initially persistent, fused and needle-like Fruits with style remnants not persistent, fused and needle-like Flowers yellow; fruits sessile Flowers white to pale creamy-yellow; fruits pedicellate Seedling leaves becoming disjunct early (opposite for <10 pairs) Seedling leaves opposite and decussate for numerous pairs (>10 pairs ) Seedling phyllotaxis spiral; buds held at maturity for many months before flowering Seedling phyllotaxis decussate-disjunct; buds flowering as soon as mature Buds 3.5–7.5 mm long, 2–3.5 mm wide; fruits 3–4.5 mm long, 3–5.5 mm wide; adult leaves 5–13 mm wide Buds 6–15 mm long, 3–6 mm wide; fruits 4–8 mm long, 4–8 mm wide; adult leaves 6–23 mm wide Tree 8–25 m tall; opercula long-conical and straight-sided Mallee 2–14 m tall; opercula shortly conical to cylindrical Pedicels 4–11 mm long; juvenile leaves lanceolate, with petioles >5 mm long Pedicels 0.5–5 mm long; juvenile leaves linear to narrow-elliptic, with petioles <5 mm long Bark persistent (non-shedding) to medium to small branches Bark smooth and shedding on branches Fruits 4.5–7 mm wide; desert regions SA and WA Fruits 3.5–5 mm wide; Cape Range WA Juvenile leaves decurrent Juvenile leaves not decurrent Umbellasters held erect; fruits barrel-shaped to slightly urceolate; WA Umbellasters pendulous; fruits distinctly urceolate; SA Umbellasters distinctly pendulous Umbellasters held erect Fruits obconic, with disc level to descending Fruits globose to barrel-shaped to urceolate, with disc descending Buds 6.5–8.5 mm wide; fruits 8.5–11 mm wide Buds 2.5–6.5 mm wide; fruits 4–9.5 mm wide Seedling leaves petiolate by node 10; Darling Range area WA Seedling leaves sessile for >20 nodes; widespread but not Darling Range in WA Buds and fruits often ribbed; opercula less than twice as long as hypanthia Buds and fruits not ribbed; opercula more than twice as long as hypanthia Fruits 10–15 mm wide; adult leaves 15–45 mm wide Fruits 6–10 mm wide; adult leaves 5–30 mm wide Pedicels 5–7 mm long; wheatbelt WA Pedicels 2–6 mm long; desert regions WA and SA Fruits globose, 10–12 mm wide; WA Fruits urceolate, 12–15 mm wide; SA Adult leaves >10 mm wide; fruits >10 mm long, >8 mm wide Adult leaves mostly <10 mm wide; fruits <10 mm long, <8 mm wide Fruits barrel-shaped, ribbed Fruits cup-shaped, ribbed Opercula blunt Opercula apiculate Fruits smooth or weakly ribbed Fruits conspicuously ribbed Juvenile leaves linear; adult leaves 5–15 mm wide; fruits 5–9 mm wide Juvenile leaves lanceolate; adult leaves 10–30 mm wide; fruits 7–13 mm wide Bark smooth and shedding throughout Bark non-shedding on lower stems Lignotuber absent; obligate seeder; tree Lignotuber present; resprouter; mallee Bark shiny, often yellowish; adult leaf venation obscured by very numerous oil glands Bark dull, white to grey; adult leaf venation not obscured by oil glands Buds and fruits sharply ribbed longitudinally Buds and fruits smooth to broadly or irregularly ribbed Fruits cup-shaped to barrel-shaped Fruits globose to hemispherical to slightly flattened Leaves, branchlets and buds distinctly red-purple, crown purple-green; buds <5 mm wide Leaves, branchlets and buds yellow-green to reddish green, crown dark green; buds >5 mm wide Buds 6–10 mm wide, opercula >14 mm long; fruits 9–13 mm wide Buds 5–7 mm wide, opercula <14 mm long; fruits 6–11 mm wide Bark non-shedding on lower trunk(s) Bark smooth and shedding throughout Opercula stoutly and bluntly beaked; fruits 9–14 mm wide Opercula less prominently beaked; fruits 8–11 mm wide Flowers with stamens united into a partial tube Flowers with stamens completely free Bud and fruit umbellasters held ± erect Bud and fruit umbellasters ±pendulous Juvenile leaves lanceolate; fruit valves broad; NSW Juvenile leaves orbicular to elliptic; fruit valves narrow; WA Fruits ±globose, about as broad as long; opercula beaked Fruits much broader than long; opercula conical Opercula hemispherical to bluntly conical or bluntly beaked, 1–2 times as long as hypanthia Opercula sharply conical to sharply beaked, 2–5 times as long as hypanthia Fruits ±smooth; opercula hemispherical to bluntly beaked; east from Esperance WA Fruits ribbed; opercula bluntly conical to bluntly beaked; west from Albany area WA Bud hypanthia ribbed; fruits hemispherical to globose, ribbed Bud hypanthia smooth; fruits globose to slightly flattened, usually smooth Outer stamens lacking anthers (staminodes) All stamens with anthers Buds and fruits square in transverse section, at least on lower part of hypanthia Buds and fruits round in transverse section Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter Fruits obconic to cup-shaped in outline Fruits oblong to urceolate in outline Mallee Tree Adult leaves 15–40 mm wide; juvenile leaves 20–45 mm wide; mesic climates Adult leaves 4–15 mm wide; juvenile leaves 3–25 mm wide; arid climates Adult leaves 7–12 mm wide; fruits pyriform to campanulate; NSW Adult leaves 15–35 mm wide; fruits obconic to hemispherical; SA Pedicels equal to or longer than buds Pedicels shorter than buds Fruits urceolate to narrowly barrel-shaped, longer than broad Fruits obconic to cup-shaped to barrel-shaped, approximately equidimensional Adult leaves dull, blue-green Adult leaves glossy, green Peduncles >5 mm long; bark smooth on upper trunks and branches Peduncles <5 mm long; bark rough to smaller branches Bark smooth and shedding throughout Bark rough and non-shedding on trunk Adult leaves 10–16 mm wide; juvenile leaves lanceolate Adult leaves 13–26 mm wide; juvenile leaves ovate Fruits >6 mm long Fruits <6 mm long Fruits globose Fruits obconic to campanulate or hemispherical Bark on trunk dark grey to black, furrowed Bark on trunk light grey, not furrowed Bark prickly to the touch, persistent to small branches Bark not prickly to the touch, medium to small branches smooth Branchlets pruinose; fruits hemispherical Branchlets not pruinose; fruits obconic to campanulate or hemispherical Style about 1 mm long; fruits 4.5–5.5 mm wide; juvenile leaves broad-ovate Style about 2.5 mm long; fruits 5–7 mm wide; juvenile leaves ovate Adult leaves with secondary veins clearly divergent, not parallel to the midrib Adult leaves with secondary veins near-parallel to the midrib Opercula rounded to bluntly conical Opercula sharply conical Mallee; adult leaves 3–10 mm wide Usually a tree; adult leaves 6–30 mm wide Bark completely smooth; adult leaves 6–20 mm wide; Mount Buffalo Plateau Vic Bark often rough on lower trunk; adult leaves 12–30 mm wide; widespread Branches distinctly pendulous Branches not distinctly pendulous Mallee <4 metres tall; adult leaves 8–25 mm wide; no parts pruinose Tree or mallee to 20+ metres tall; adult leaves 12–50 mm wide; variably pruinose Fruit disc level to descending and obscured Fruit disc level to ascending or annular and conspicuous Style persisting in fruits Style not persisting in fruits Buds massed on outside of crown; opercula conspicuously red at maturity, mostly conical to slightly beaked; fruit disc often whitish Buds less conspicuously massed on crown; opercula not conspicuously red at maturity; fruit disc not whitish Juvenile leaves connate; buds and fruits sessile Juvenile leaves not connate; buds and fruits pedicellate Adult leaves relatively fine ; widespread Adult leaves coarse; northern Ravensthorpe Range Tree Mallee Seedling leaves linear, not pruinose Seedling leaves orbicular, pruinose Seedling leaves linear to narrow-elliptic Seedling leaves orbicular to broad-elliptic Seedling and adult leaves linear Seedling leaves narrowly elliptic Bark non-shedding on lower stems Bark smooth throughout Opercula sharply beaked Opercula conical Seedling leaves green Seedling leaves bluish Adult leaves coarse Adult leaves fine Seedling leaves elliptic; adult leaves light green to mid-green Seedling leaves narrowly elliptic; adult leaves olive green Seedling leaves pruinose Seedling leaves not pruinose Mature crown composed mostly or entirely of juvenile leaves Mature crown composed mostly or entirely of adult leaves Adult branchlets pruinose Adult branchlets not pruinose Opercula rounded; style usually spirally twisted Opercula pointed; style straight Seedling leaves elliptic Seedling leaves orbicular Opercula conical Opercula beaked Bark rough and non-shedding on lower stems Bark smooth and shedding throughout Adult leaves >5 mm wide Adult leaves <5 mm wide Opercula rounded to flattened Opercula conical Adult leaves initially dull, slightly blue-green Adult leaves glossy and green at all stages Fruits 5–8 mm wide; WA Fruits 3–6 mm wide; SA, Vic and NSW Juvenile leaves <15 mm wide; central and southern wheatbelt WA Juvenile leaves >15 mm wide; northern wheatbelt and sandplains WA Tree; lignotuber absent; obligate seeder; branchlets and buds pruinose Mallee; lignotuber present; resprouter; branchlets and buds not pruinose Fruits longer than wide Fruits equidimensional or wider than long Seedling phyllotaxis spiral; mature buds held for many months before flowering Seedling phyllotaxis decussate-disjunct; buds flowering as soon as mature Buds and fruits pedicellate Buds and fruits sessile, in tight clusters Fruits >9 mm wide Fruits <8 mm wide Branchlets strongly angular to winged, often pruinose Branchlets terete to slightly angular, not pruinose Bark dark-coloured and persistent Bark light-coloured and shedding in plates or strips Bark shedding in plates; fruits 5–6 mm wide Bark shedding in strips; fruits 7–8 mm wide Mallee; lignotuber present Tree; lignotuber present or absent Lignotuber absent; obligate seeder; tree or mallet Lignotuber present; resprouter; tree or mallee Forest tree; south-eastern Australia Woodland tree; south-western Australia Umbellasters 3-flowered Umbellasters 7-flowered or more Buds and fruits ribbed Buds and fruits not ribbed Umbellasters paired Umbellasters single Juvenile leaves glossy, green; bark completely smooth and shedding Juvenile leaves dull, blue-green; bark rough and non-shedding on lower trunk Bark rough over lower half or more of trunk; fruits barrel-shaped to hemispherical Bark rough on lower quarter or less of trunk; fruits urceolate to cup-shaped Persistent bark compact; Sassafras in NSW southwards Persistent bark more fibrous; Nattai River in NSW northwards Bark rough and persistent on trunk Bark smooth and shedding throughout Branchlets pruinose Branchlets not pruinose Flowers yellow; fruits campanulate Flowers white to cream; fruits cylindrical, cup-shaped or obconic Fruits sessile Fruits pedicellate Adult leaves glossy, green; fruits cylindrical Adult leaves dull, grey-green; fruits cup-shaped to obconic Bark persistent on trunk and branches; fruits ± smooth Bark persistent on trunk only (blackbutt), branches smooth; fruits ± ribbed Adult leaves dull, grey-green Adult leaves maturing glossy, green Flowers red; opercula warty Flowers white to cream or yellow; opercula not warty Fruits <5 mm wide Fruits >5 mm wide Pedicels absent or to 2 mm long in bud Pedicels >2 mm long in bud Branchlets pruinose Branchlets not pruinose Flowers bright yellow; opercula beaked Flowers creamy-white; opercula hemispherical Fruits >12 mm long Fruits <12 mm long Fruits >8 mm wide; adult leaves 20–40 mm wide Fruits <8 mm wide; adult leaves 15–22 mm wide Adult leaves dull, blue-green Adult leaves glossy, green Opercula rounded to hemispherical Opercula conical to beaked Fruits globose to urceolate, valves enclosed Fruits cup-shaped to obconic, valves around rim level Fruits <6 mm wide Fruits >6 mm wide Buds and fruits ± sessile; opercula conical Buds and fruits pedicellate; opercula shortly beaked Buds and fruits conspicuously multi-ribbed; pedicels >5 mm long Buds and fruits smooth or weakly ribbed; pedicels <5 mm long Peduncles <5 mm long; pedicels absent Peduncles 2–13 mm long; pedicels 0–5 mm long Adult leaves dull, blue-green to grey Adult leaves glossy, green Bark smooth and decorticating throughout Bark rough and persistent on the lower trunk at least Fruits spherical; seedling leaves hairy Fruits barrel-shaped, cup-shaped or obconic; seedling leaves glabrous Peduncles somewhat flattened; south-western Australia Peduncles terete; northern Australia Adult leaves grey-green; buds 4–7 mm long Adult leaves green; buds 4–5 mm long Whole plant pruinose; adult leaves ovate to orbicular Whole plant not pruinose; adult leaves elliptic to lanceolate Adult leaf petioles <10 mm long; fruits hemispherical Adult leaf petioles >10 mm long, slender; fruits cup-shaped Adult leaves elliptic to ovate to broad-lanceolate Adult leaves narrow-lanceolate Bark hard, deeply-furrowed, almost black (ironbark) Bark not deeply-furrowed (not an ironbark) Mature crown composed of sessile, pruinose juvenile leaves Mature crown composed of petiolate, non-pruinose adult leaves Fruits pruinose, valves exserted above rim level Fruits not pruinose, valves below rim level Bark rough and persistent on the lower trunk at least Bark mostly smooth and decorticating Buds and fruits sessile (lacking pedicels) Buds and fruits distinctly pedicellate Adult leaf margins denticulate due to scattered marginal glands Adult leaf margins not denticulate, lacking marginal glands Fruits <5 mm wide Fruits >5 mm wide Opercula hemispherical Opercula conical to beaked Smooth bark not powdery, not white, SA Smooth bark powdery, often whitish; NT Fruits mostly 5-valved (some 4-valved); Qld Fruits 3- or 4-valved; Vic and NSW Fruit valves well below rim level; juvenile leaves becoming disjunct after 4–7 nodes Fruit valves around rim level; juvenile leaves opposite for >20 nodes Seedling stems 4-winged; Grampians and Pyrenees Vic only Seedling stems square in cross section but not 4-winged; widespread Pith glands present; WA Pith glands absent; SA, Vic, NSW and Qld (except E. patens – WA) Opercula lightly ribbed Opercula smooth Juvenile leaves >30 mm wide; adult leaves with intramarginal vein >1 mm from leaf margin Juvenile leaves <30 mm wide; adult leaves with intramarginal vein <1 mm from leaf margin Seeds deeply pitted, often toothed around edge; valves exserted Seeds shallowly reticulate, not toothed around edge; valves at or below rim level Adult leaves with prominent secondary venation and sparse to moderate oil glands Adult leaves with obscure secondary venation and very numerous oil glands Bud hypanthia slightly constricted Bud hypanthia not constricted Buds pyriform Buds double-conic or rarely ovoid Buds and fruits sessile Buds and/or fruits pedicellate Forest tree; adult leaf margins denticulate due to scattered marginal glands Woodland tree; adult leaf margins not denticulate, lacking marginal glands Bark rough to small branches; seedling stems terete Bark smooth on branches; seedling stems quadrangular Branchlets pruinose Branchlets not pruinose Fruit valves around rim level or exserted Fruit valves below rim level Fruits >9 mm wide Fruits <9 mm wide Rough bark loosely held; seedling stems quadrangular; Vic Rough bark tightly held; seedling stems terete; NSW Fruits 7–13 mm wide Fruits 3–8 mm wide Rough bark coarsely furrowed; juvenile leaves petiolate by node 8; WA Rough bark fine-textured; juvenile leaves sessile for many nodes; NSW and Qld Buds ovoid; adult leaves consistently glossy and green; fruits equidimensional Buds ovoid to spindle-shaped; adult leaves often dull, at least when young Forest tree; juvenile leaves ovate-orbicular Woodland tree or mallee; juvenile leaves ovate to broad-lanceolate Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate to narrow-elliptic; adult leaves 3–15 mm wide Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate to narrow-elliptic; adult leaves 7–20 mm wide Umbellasters down-turned or pendulous Umbellasters held loosely or rigidly erect Adult leaves glossy, green Adult leaves dull, blue-green Buds and fruits ribbed Buds and fruits not ribbed Fruits 10–15 mm wide; adult leaves 15–45 mm wide Fruits 6–10 mm wide; adult leaves 5–30 mm wide Pedicels 5–7 mm long; wheatbelt of WA Pedicels 2–6 mm long; desert regions of WA and SA Fruits globose, 10–12 mm wide; WA Fruits urceolate, 12–15 mm wide; SA Adult leaves >10 mm wide; fruits >10 mm long, >8 mm wide Adult leaves mostly <10 mm wide; fruits <10 mm long, <8 mm wide Fruits urceolate Fruits cylindrical, barrel-shaped or globose Flowers yellow-green; bark persistent Flowers white; bark usually smooth Adult leaves opposite to sub-opposite Adult leaves clearly disjunct Cotyledons T-shaped; juvenile leaves orbicular to ovate; adult leaves 12–25 mm wide Cotyledons reniform; juvenile leaves linear to lanceolate; adult leaves 5–11 mm wide Crown sparse and drooping Crown moderately dense, not drooping Fruits globose; flowers white Fruits cylindrical to barrel-shaped; flowers yellow Bud hypanthia or opercula ribbed or striate Bud hypanthia and opercula smooth Seeds glossy, reddish Seeds dull, brown to black Bark rough on lower half of stems, fibrous; Great Victoria Desert Bark smooth throughout, or ribbony-rough on lower stems but not fibrous; not in Great Victoria Desert Fruits 6–10 mm long, 6–11 mm wide; adult leaves predominantly lanceolate Fruits 10–16 mm long, 9–14 mm wide; adult leaves broad-lanceolate to ovate Branchlets and/or buds pruinose Branchlets and buds not pruinose Opercula rounded to apiculate; fruits not ribbed Opercula apiculate; fruits often ribbed or striate Branchlets, buds and fruits strongly pruinose; Eyre Peninsula only Branchlets, buds and fruits weakly or variably pruinose Mature adult leaves glossy, dark green to olive green Mature adult leaves dull to slightly glossy, blue-green to greyish Fruits wider than long; peduncles absent or to 6 mm long Fruits equal to or longer than wide; peduncles 3–16 mm long Opercula prominently ribbed, wider than hypanthia at join Opercula weakly ribbed, ± flush with hypanthia at join Adult leaves light green; opercula rounded; Seabird southwards on the west coast of WA Adult leaves dark green to blue-green; opercula rounded to conical; widespread, but not from Seabird southwards on the west coast of WA Tree or mallee; pedicels 1–6 mm long Mallee; pedicels 0–3 mm long Adult leaves greyish, 22–40 mm wide Adult leaves green to blue-grey, 10–25 mm wide Opercula wider than hypanthia at join, ribs on opercula >0.8 mm high Opercula ± flush with hypanthia at join, ribs on opercula <0.5 mm high Opercula apiculate Opercula rounded to flattened Buds and fruits usually pedicellate; eastern Australia Buds and fruits sessile; Esperance Plains WA Fruits 7–10 mm wide, adult leaves 15–35 mm wide; bark rough or smooth Fruits 5–7 mm wide; adult leaves 8–20 mm wide; bark smooth throughout Flowers yellow; fruits square in cross section Flowers white; fruits round in cross section Juvenile leaves opposite and sessile; operculum single (scar absent in mature buds); placentae with ovules in 2 vertical rows Juvenile leaves disjunct and petiolate; operculum double (scar present in mature buds); placentae with ovules in 4 vertical rows Adult leaves glossy, bright green; juvenile leaves very glossy, light green; on limestone-derived soils Adult leaves ± glossy, blue-green; juvenile leaves dull to glossy, green to blue-green; on granite- or sandstone-derived soils Opercula much longer than wide Opercula shorter than wide or equidimensional Seeds with a shallow reticulum Seeds deeply pitted Bark usually smooth throughout, fruits coarsely angled or ribbed; coastal Bark usually rough on lower stems, fruits smooth or lightly ribbed; coastal or inland Opercula narrower than hypanthia at join; coastal and wheatbelt areas of SA and WA Opercula wider than hypanthia at join; Great Victoria Desert SA and WA Mature crown composed of sessile juvenile leaves Mature crown composed of petiolate adult leaves Pith glands absent; peduncles usually terete to angular Pith glands present; peduncles usually somewhat flattened Adult leaves dull, green to blue-green to greyish Adult leaves maturing glossy, green Flowers yellow Flowers white Fruits 6–9 mm wide, not constricted to orifice Fruits 10–15 mm wide, constricted to orifice Seeds glossy, reddish Seeds dull, yellowish to brown to black Fruits 7–10 mm wide; adult leaves 15–35 mm wide; bark rough or smooth Fruits 5–7 mm wide; adult leaves 8–24 mm wide; bark smooth throughout Branchlets, buds and young fruits pruinose; opercula equal in width to hypanthia at join Branchlets, buds and young fruits not pruinose; opercula often slightly narrower than hypanthia at join Opercula much longer than wide; adult leaves 4–20 mm wide Opercula equidimensional; adult leaves 10–30 mm wide Adult leaves dull or glossy, green to grey-green, >7 mm wide Adult leaves glossy, green, <7 mm wide Mature adult leaves dull, bluish to greyish Mature adult leaves glossy, green Buds <12 mm long; fruits 10–12 mm long Buds >12 mm long; fruits 5–9 mm long Fruits obconic Fruits globose, cup-shaped or cylindrical Bark rough and non-shedding over most of the stems Bark mostly or entirely smooth and shedding Tree; juvenile leaves deltoid, pruinose Mallee; juvenile leaves linear to lanceolate to ovate, not pruinose Juvenile leaves linear; adult leaves 4–9 mm wide; north of Shark Bay WA Juvenile leaves lanceolate to ovate; adult leaves 7–25 mm wide; south of Shark Bay WA Fruit valves exserted above rim level Fruit valves below rim level Style not tapering and articulate; juvenile leaves deltoid, pruinose Style with base tapering and articulate in a pit in the ovary roof; juvenile leaves lanceolate, not pruinose Fruits >5 mm wide Fruits <5 mm wide Style with base tapering and articulate in a pit in the ovary roof Style not tapering and articulate Bark smooth and shedding throughout Bark rough and non-shedding on the lower stems Peduncles flattened, distally widening Peduncles terete to angular, not distally widening Adult leaves dull or glossy, green to grey-green, >7 mm wide Adult leaves glossy, green, <7 mm wide Seeds deeply pitted Seeds smooth or shallowly reticulate Opercula beaked to long-conical Opercula broadly conical to flattened Bark smooth or rough at butt only Bark rough over part or whole of trunk or stems Bud hypanthia widest towards the base Bud hypanthia widest towards the top Adult leaves with prominent secondary venation and scattered oil glands Adult leaves with obscure secondary venation and very numerous oil glands Bud hypanthia slightly constricted Bud hypanthia not constricted Buds double-conic or rarely ovoid Buds pyriform Fruits longer than wide Fruits equidimensional Fruits 4–6 mm wide Fruits 6–9 mm wide Seeds deeply pitted; opercula rounded to broadly conical Seeds not deeply pitted; opercula beaked to long-conical Opercula rounded; Pilbara area WA Opercula apiculate; southern WA Opercula narrower than hypanthia at join; seeds compressed-ovoid, not scurfy Opercula flush with hypanthia at join; seeds flattened, often scurfy Bark rough and non-shedding on the lower stems Bark smooth and shedding throughout Fruits 7–10 mm wide; adult leaves dull when young (maturing glossy) Fruits 5–8 mm wide; adult leaves glossy at all stages Bark smooth and shedding throughout Bark rough and non-shedding on the lower stems Seeds deeply pitted; adult leaves glossy at all stages Seeds scurfy, non-pitted; adult dull when young (maturing glossy) Fruit valves at or above rim level Fruit valves below rim level Mature crown composed of petiolate, orbicular, greyish leaves Mature crown not composed of petiolate, orbicular, greyish leaves Juvenile leaves linear; adult leaves held erect, 5–10 mm wide; Kangaroo island and Fleurieu Peninsula in SA only Juvenile leaves orbicular or cordate; adult leaves not held erect, 8–40 mm wide; south-eastern Australia, including Kangaroo island and Fleurieu Peninsula in SA Mallee to 5 m tall; juvenile leaves not amplexicaul, not persistent in mature crown Mallee or tree, 3–18 m tall; juvenile leaves amplexicaul, often persistent in mature crown Buds sessile; juvenile leaves sessile for many pairs Buds pedicellate; juvenile leaves sessile for a few pairs then disjunct Fruits longer than wide Fruits equidimensional or wider than long Juvenile leaves sessile for many pairs; bud peduncles broad and somewhat flattened Juvenile leaves sessile for a few pairs only, then disjunct; bud peduncles ± terete Bark mostly shedding; seedling growth tips not pruinose Bark mostly non-shedding; seedling growth tips pruinose Bark completely smooth and shedding; Kimberley region WA Bark often rough and non-shedding on lower stems; southern and eastern Australia Adult leaves elliptic to ovate to broad-lanceolate Adult leaves narrow-lanceolate Branchlets and buds often pruinose Branchlets and buds not pruinose Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate to narrow-elliptic; adult leaves 7–20 mm wide Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate to narrow-elliptic; adult leaves 3–15 mm wide Juvenile leaves linear; adult leaves mostly 4–8 mm wide Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate to narrow-elliptic; adult leaves mostly 5–15 mm wide Adult leaves 50–80 mm long; sandy or loamy flats and low rises in south-east of S.A. and Wimmera of Vic Adult leaves 60–130 mm long; stony to clayey sites on Eyre Peninsula, Flinders Ranges, and ridges to the east in SA Juvenile leaves glossy, green; opercula usually minutely warty; east coast of Australia Juvenile leaves dull, green to blue-green; opercula smooth; southern WA, SA and arid parts of Vic and NSW Branchlets longitudinally winged Branchlets not longitudinally winged Fruit disc level Fruit disc descending Fruits sessile, wider than long Fruits pedicellate, equidimensional Fruits broad; umbellasters mostly 3-flowered Fruits narrower; umbellasters mostly 7-flowered Leaves thick; broadest leaves <9 mm wide Leaves thin; broadest leaves >10 mm wide New growth pinkish-grey; longest peduncles <8 mm long New growth green; longest peduncles >8 mm long Adult leaves 4–7 mm wide Adult leaves 6–35 mm wide Adult leaves 6–20 mm wide Adult leaves 15–35 mm wide Adult leaves 15–25 mm wide; coastal sandstone NSW Adult leaves 15–35 mm wide; Blue Mountains NSW Fruits 4–8 mm wide; SA and arid parts of Vic and NSW Fruits 7–26 mm wide; south-western WA Fruits sessile or subsessile, >16 mm wide Fruits pedicellate, <16 mm wide Bark persistent and non-shedding on lower stems Bark smooth and shedding throughout Crown dense to ground level; fruit with orifice width less than half of fruit width Crown held above ground level; fruit with orifice width greater than half of fruit width Branches drooping Branches not drooping Tree; lignotuber present or absent Mallee; lignotuber present Tree or mallet; obligate seeder; lignotuber absent; south-western WA Tree or mallee; resprouter; lignotuber present; widespread including south-western WA Flowers bright yellow to yellow-green Flowers white or cream to pink to coral No parts pruinose; adult leaves green Branchlets, buds and fruits pruinose; adult leaves greyish Umbellasters pendulous Umbellasters held rigidly erect Bark shedding throughout; adult leaves glossy, green Bark non-shedding on trunk; adult leaves dull, grey-green Branchlets pruinose Branchlets not pruinose Buds 5–8 mm wide; fruits 8–10 mm wide Buds 4–5 mm wide; fruits 4–7 mm wide Buds sessile Buds pedicellate Buds 4–5 mm wide; fruits 4–7 mm wide Buds 5–7 mm wide; fruits 6–8 mm wide Opercula hemispherical Opercula acute Fruit valves obscured and below rim level Fruit valves conspicuous, at or above rim level Bark smooth and shedding at least on upper half of trunk Bark rough and non-shedding to the branches Inflorescences axillary and compound Inflorescences axillary and simple Branchlets and/or buds pruinose Branchlets and buds not pruinose Mature crown composed mostly or entirely of sessile juvenile leaves Mature crown composed entirely of petiolate adult leaves Buds warty Buds not warty Juvenile leaves pruinose; fruits 6–11 mm wide Juvenile leaves not pruinose; fruits 3–5 mm wide Adult leaves 3–9 mm wide Adult leaves mostly >9 mm wide Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate; rough bark hard, dark and compact Juvenile leaves cordate to broad-lanceolate; rough bark grey, short-fibred Juvenile leaves with few or no oil glands, but with protruding glands present along leaf margins; Tas Juvenile leaves with numerous oil glands, lacking protruding glands along leaf margins; mainland Aust Fruits 6–8 mm wide Fruits 5–6 mm wide Buds pruinose; adult leaves grey-green Buds not pruinose; adult leaves green to blue-green Juvenile leaves broad-lanceolate to ovate; adult leaves often >15 mm wide Juvenile leaves linear-lanceolate; adult leaves often <15 mm wide Adult leaves 4–10 mm wide; Tas Adult leaves mostly >10 mm wide; Australian mainland Juvenile leaves opposite for only a few pairs, then disjunct; fruits tapering to pedicels Juvenile leaves opposite for >10 pairs; fruits well defined from pedicels Bark prickly to the touch, persistent to small branches Bark not prickly to the touch, medium to small branches smooth Branchlets pruinose; fruits hemispherical Branchlets not pruinose; fruits obconic to campanulate or hemispherical Style c. 1 mm long; fruits 4.5–5.5 mm wide; juvenile leaves broad-ovate Style c. 2.5 mm long; fruits 5–7 mm wide; juvenile leaves ovate Adult leaves dull Adult leaves slightly glossy to glossy Juvenile leaves becoming petiolate and vertically-oriented in early seedling development; bark mostly smooth and shedding or mostly rough and non-shedding Juvenile leaves amplexicaul and horizontally-oriented for numerous pairs; bark mostly rough and non-shedding Fruits 6–8 mm wide Fruits 5–6 mm wide Juvenile leaves cordate to broad-ovate, >40 mm wide; adult leaves >20 mm wide Juvenile leaves lanceolate, <30 mm wide; adult leaves <20 mm wide Adult leaves glossy, green; fruits 7–9 mm wide Adult leaves slightly glossy, blue-green; fruits 4–6 mm wide Bark mostly or entirely smooth and shedding (a short stocking of rough bark may be present) Bark mostly or entirely rough and non-shedding Umbellasters mostly paired in leaf axils Umbellasters single in leaf axils Buds mushroom-shaped; operculum much wider than hypanthium at join Buds not mushroom-shaped; operculum as wide as hypanthium at join Branchlets and/or buds pruinose Branchlets and/or buds not pruinose Non-shedding bark hard, compact, dark grey Non-shedding bark soft, stringy-fibrous, red-brown to grey-brown Peduncles >9 mm long; crown leaves 20–40 mm wide Peduncles <6 mm long; crown leaves 24–90 mm wide At least some umbellasters 3-flowered Umbellasters consistently 7-flowered Crown a mix of pruinose adult and intermediate leaves Crown entirely of non-pruinose adult leaves Fruits obconic, usually sessile; Vic and southern NSW Fruits hemispherical or campanulate, pedicellate; northern NSW Peduncles <3 mm long Peduncles >3 mm long Juvenile leaves orbicular to elliptic to broad-lanceolate Juvenile leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate Juvenile leaves sessile, usually amplexicaul; adult leaves glossy, green Juvenile leaves petiolate, not amplexicaul (stem-clasping); adult leaves dull to slightly glossy, green to blue-green Adult leaves mostly <10 mm wide Adult leaves mostly >10 mm wide Juvenile leaves linear Juvenile leaves narrowly elliptic Bark smooth and shedding on branches; NSW Bark persistent and non-shedding on branches; Vic Juvenile leaves dull, blue green; rough bark (if present) tightly held and compact Juvenile leaves glossy, green; rough bark (if present) less tightly held, fibrous-chunky Juvenile leaves basally amplexicaul; fruits 5–9 mm wide, disc weakly convex; widespread including Mt Richmond area in Vic Juvenile leaves basally tapering; fruits 5–7 mm wide, disc strongly convex; Mt Richmond area in Vic Juvenile leaves petiolate and disjunct; adult leaf petioles 10–35 mm long; fruits obconic Juvenile leaves sessile or opposite; adult leaf petioles mostly <15 mm long; fruits globose to cup-shaped to obconic Fruits >5 mm wide; bark rough on trunk only Fruits <5 mm wide; bark rough to medium branches Juvenile leaves cordate to orbicular, 20–45 mm wide Juvenile leaves ovate to elliptic, 3–35 mm wide Fruits obconic to campanulate Fruits cup-shaped to hemispherical Juvenile leaves opposite, green, sometimes pruinose; adult leaves usually slightly discolorous; fruits mostly 4-valved Juvenile leaves disjunct, greyish, pruinose; adult leaves concolorous; fruits mostly 3-valved Fruits obconic Fruits cup-shaped to hemispherical to campanulate Adult new growth pruinose Adult new growth not pruinose Spreading tree; fruits 3–5 mm wide; mainland Australia Erect tree; fruits 4–6 mm wide; Tas Adult leaves glossy, green Adult leaves dull, green to blue-green Adult leaves 75–200 mm long; juvenile leaves 30–70 mm long; Vic Adult leaves 50–130 mm long; juvenile leaves 20–35 mm long; NSW Umbellasters mostly paired in leaf axils Umbellasters single in leaf axils Mature crown composed mostly or entirely of sessile juvenile leaves Mature crown composed entirely of petiolate adult leaves Crown leaves mostly connate Crown leaves not connate Opercula rounded Opercula apiculate Buds conspicuously and coarsely warty Buds not warty Adult leaves ovate; fruits 11–18 mm wide Adult leaves orbicular to ovate, often emarginate; fruits 16–25 mm wide Adult leaves orbicular, deltoid or ovate Adult leaves narrow-lanceolate to broad-lanceolate Branchlets, buds and fruits pruinose Branchlets, buds and fruits not pruinose Adult leaves ovate to lanceolate Adult leaves orbicular to deltoid Fruits mostly <6 mm wide Fruits mostly >6 mm wide Adult leaves glossy, green Adult leaves dull, green to blue-green Fruit disc broad and conspicuous, level Fruit disc narrow or broad, annular or ascending Fruits >10 mm wide; south-western WA Fruits <10 mm wide; northern Australia Adult leaves glossy, green Adult leaves dull, green to grey-green Fruits sessile Fruits pedicellate Smooth bark shedding in long ribbons; Vic and NSW Smooth bark shedding in plates and short strips; Qld and WA Juvenile leaves bluish, usually pruinose; adult leaves dull or slightly glossy; NSW Juvenile leaves green, not pruinose; adult leaves very glossy; southern Vic Smooth bark not granular; northern WA Smooth bark granular; Qld Peduncles 3–10 mm long; fruits 6–8 mm wide Peduncles 8–22 mm long; fruits 7–11 mm wide Smooth bark shedding in long ribbons Smooth bark shedding in plates and short strips Seeds brown, toothed; northern Australia Seeds yellowish, smooth; widespread Opercula warty Opercula not warty Juvenile leaves petiolate Juvenile leaves sessile Adult leaves maturing glossy, green Adult leaves dull, green to blue-green Smooth bark shedding in short plates and strips; adult leaves 15–60 mm wide; northern Australia Smooth bark shedding in long ribbons; adult leaves 10–20 mm wide; south-eastern Australia Adult new growth pruinose Adult new growth not pruinose Juvenile leaves discolorous, crenulate; erect tree; fruits cup-shaped, obconic or campanulate Juvenile leaves concolorous, not crenulate; spreading to erect tree; fruits obconic Adult leaves rounded or mucronate; fruit valves slightly exserted above rim Adult leaves acute; fruit valves at rim level Fruits 10–14 mm wide; southern WA Fruits 4–12 mm wide; northern Australia Umbellasters mostly 3-flowered ; peduncles mostly <5 mm long Umbellasters mostly 7-flowered; peduncles mostly >5 mm long Fruits 7–12 mm wide, often pruinose Fruits 4–6 mm wide, not pruinose Juvenile leaves linear to lanceolate Juvenile leaves orbicular to broad-lanceolate Adult leaves dull, blue-green Adult leaves glossy, green Adult leaves 5–15 mm wide; juvenile leaves 5–18 mm wide Adult leaves 10–30 mm wide; juvenile leaves 15–32 mm wide Poorly formed tree or mallee; juvenile leaves tapering to base (not amplexicaul), slightly crenulated Forest tree; juvenile leaves amplexicaul, not crenulated Juvenile leaves <25 mm long; fruits 3–5 mm wide, valves around rim level Juvenile leaves >25 mm long; fruits 4–9 mm wide, valves exserted above rim level Fruits <5 mm wide Fruits >5 mm wide Smooth bark shed in long ribbons Smooth bark shed in short strips and plates Juvenile leaves crenulated; fruit valves erect Juvenile leaves not crenulate; fruit valves incurved Juvenile leaves elliptic; fruits 5–6 mm long Juvenile leaves orbicular; fruits 6–8 mm long Buds and fruits pendulous or down-turned Buds and fruits held erect Fruits <8 mm wide; adult leaves 3–9 mm wide Fruits >8 mm wide; adult leaves 6–40 mm wide Branchlets angular; peduncles flattened Branchlets terete; peduncles terete Hypanthia in buds and fruits conspicuously flared near rim Hypanthia in buds and fruits not flared near rim Buds conspicuously and coarsely warty Buds not warty (rarely minutely warty or rough) Adult leaves ovate; fruits 11–18 mm wide Adult leaves orbicular to ovate, often emarginate; fruits 16–25 mm wide Bark rough and non-shedding on stems Bark smooth and shedding throughout (some rough bark may be present on the lower stems) Ovary roof 3-lobed; adult leaves mostly <15 mm wide Ovary roof not 3-lobed; adult leaves mostly >10 mm wide Umbellasters 7–13-flowered; fruits 4–5 mm wide; Qld, NSW Umbellasters 7–9(–11)-flowered; fruits 5–9 mm wide; WA, SA and NT Adult leaves lanceolate, 8–20 mm wide Adult leaves linear, 1–7 mm wide Fruits mostly <8 mm wide Fruits mostly >8 mm wide Juvenile leaves sessile; fruits sessile Juvenile leaves petiolate; fruits pedicellate All juvenile and adult parts non-pruinose Branchlets and juvenile leaves pruinose Pedicels 1–3 mm long; fruit valves level with or exserted above rim level; WA Pedicels 1–6 mm long; fruit valves below rim level; SA and NSW Adult leaves 7–12 mm wide; fruits pyriform to campanulate; NSW Adult leaves 15–35 mm wide; fruits obconic to hemispherical; SA Fruits disc level to slightly ascending Fruits disc descending Umbellasters 7-flowered; pedicels 4–9 mm long Umbellasters 9–11-flowered; pedicels 1–7 mm long Fruits sessile, squat, <5 mm long Fruits >5 mm long Adult leaves 45–130 mm long, 2–7 mm wide Adult leaves 40–90 mm long, 5–15 mm wide Adult leaves 2–4 mm wide Adult leaves 4–7 mm wide Adult leaves green, 5–10 mm wide Adult leaves blue-green, 8–15 mm wide Buds and fruits sessile and crowded Buds and fruits pedicellate, not crowded Buds smooth (not angular or ribbed) Buds angular or ribbed Peduncles 0–4 mm long; adult leaves 10–23 mm wide; NSW Peduncles 4–10 mm long; adult leaves 17–60 mm wide; central Australia Fruit valves at or below rim level Fruit valves exserted above rim level Fruits globose, 7–20 mm wide; south-western and central Australia Fruits cup-shaped to obconic, 4–12 mm wide; northern Australia Opercula rounded Opercula apiculate Adult leaves blue-green; Great Victoria Desert WA and SA Adult leaves green; south-western WA Opercula broadly conical; south-western WA Opercula sharply beaked; central Australia Adult leaves glossy Adult leaves dull Umbellasters mostly 3-flowered ; peduncles mostly <5 mm long Umbellasters mostly 7-flowered; peduncles mostly >5 mm long Fruits 7–12 mm wide; often pruinose Fruits 4–6 mm wide; not pruinose Operculum scar present Operculum scar absent Pedicels >4 mm long Pedicels <4 mm long Fruits cup-shaped, cylindrical or obconic; Tas Fruits truncate-globose to hemispherical; WA Fruit disc descending Fruit disc ± level to ascending Fruits 14–18 mm wide; south-western WA Fruits 9–12 mm wide; NSW Juvenile leaves glossy, green; adult leaves glossy, green; eastern Australia Juvenile leaves dull, green to blue-green; adult leaves initially dull, blue-green, but sometimes maturing glossy and green; southern Australia Opercula >1.5 times as long as hypanthia, conical to beaked Opercula <1.5 times as long as hypanthia, hemispherical to conical Seeds distinctly flanged, >3 mm long; south-western WA only Seeds not or barely flanged, <3 mm long; south coast from Point Culver in WA to Cape Nelson in Vic Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text