Flora of Australia: vascular plants: Families of flowering plants 8

From: Thiele, K.R. (2016). The Families of Flowering Plants. In: Thiele, K.R. (ed), Keys to the Flowering Plants of Australia. KeyBase.

Key metadata



Note that this key was originally derived from the Key to Families in Flora of Australia by A.E. Orchard, based on Cronquist family circumscriptions. It has been extensively edited to align it with the Australian Plant Census (APC) family circumscriptions (these are largely derived from the APGIII system). The change log indicates changes that have been made. In this version, in addition to the recircumscriptions, the first couplet (separating monocots from dicots in the original key) has been removed and the monocots inserted at appropriate points. This change reflects the modern understanding that "dicots" is not a meaningful group, and makes the key fully artificial. The monocot/dicot split at the head of the key was also often challenging for untrained users.


Thiele, K.R. (2016). The Families of Flowering Plants. In: Thiele, K.R. (ed), Keys to the Flowering Plants of Australia. KeyBase.

Cite this key

KeyBase (2023). Flora of Australia: vascular plants: Families of flowering plants. https://keybase.rbg.vic.gov.au/keys/show/8 [Seen: 03-12-2023].

Created by
Kevin Thiele
Date created
Modified by
Niels Klazenga
Date modified

Changes (74)

Time modified Modified by Comment
2021-04-29 12:17:15 Brian Ellery Removing Eucalyptus from line 1290
2017-01-02 13:27:40 Kevin Thiele Aphananthe, Celtis, Trema moved from Ulmaceae to Cannabaceae
2016-12-28 15:18:04 Kevin Thiele Platanaceae, Paulowniaceae, Ecdeiocoleaceae added
2016-12-28 00:23:52 Kevin Thiele Eremosyne (Escalloniaceae) added
2016-12-17 22:50:55 Kevin Thiele Heliconiaceae added
2016-12-09 12:33:23 Kevin Thiele Myodocarpaceae separated from Araliaceae
2016-12-07 19:05:35 Kevin Thiele Neuradaceae, Emblingiaceae, Lardizabalaceae, Muntingiaceae added
2016-12-06 15:20:38 Kevin Thiele Begoniaceae, Doryanthaceae, Griseliniaceae, Hydroleaceae added
2016-08-06 21:14:35 Kevin Thiele Hydrangeaceae, Gelsemiaceae, Mayacaceae, Juglandaceae and Didiereaceae added
2016-07-24 18:22:58 Kevin Thiele Scrophulariaceae split into segregate families
2016-04-19 18:53:16 Kevin Thiele Liliaceae sensu Cronquist split into segregate families sensu APC
2016-03-26 20:20:34 Kevin Thiele Aloe moved from Aloeaceae to Asphodelaceae
2016-03-26 20:14:57 Kevin Thiele Aloe moved to Asphodelaceae
2016-03-26 20:12:17 Kevin Thiele First couplet (monocot/dicot split) removed, and monocots dispersed amongst the key
2016-03-16 22:03:31 Kevin Thiele Nymphaeaceae made monotypic (following merger of Ondinea into Nymphaea, fide APC)
2016-03-01 12:05:49 Kevin Thiele Argophyllaceae (Corokia) split from Grossulariaceae sensu Cronquist
2016-03-01 12:04:06 Kevin Thiele Argophyllaceae (Corokia) split from Grossulariaceae sensu Cronquist
2016-02-26 09:39:08 Kevin Thiele Callitrichaceae moved to Plantaginaceae; Myoporaceae moved to Scrophulariaceae
2016-02-23 01:05:25 Kevin Thiele All instances of Cronquist's Grossulariaceae (10 genera, now split across 6 families) assigned to one or more of Argophyllaceae, Escalloniaceae, Grossulariaceae, Haloragaceae, Paracryphiaceae and Rousseaceae
2016-02-22 01:03:55 Kevin Thiele Aquifoliaceae leads edited to more efficiently deal with Aquifolia (Ilex) and Paracryphiaceae (Sphenostemon); Burmanniaceae/Thismiaceae leads edited to more efficiently deal with these families; Smilacaceae leads assigned to segregate genera
2016-02-21 23:32:13 Kevin Thiele All monogeneric and monotypic families annotated with their parenthetical genera/species
2015-02-28 11:20:45 Niels Klazenga Reversed order of keyed out items and linked to items
2014-10-27 10:10:38 Kevin Thiele Fix for Hymenosporum (if assume petals fused, then need to allow anthers versatile)
2014-03-07 18:09:15 Kevin Thiele Updates to account for failures to key out Spathodea (Bignoniaceae) and Stachytarpheta (Verbenaceae)
2014-03-05 08:07:20 Kevin Thiele Spelling error corrected on Phyllanthaceae couplets
2014-02-07 10:23:06 Kevin Thiele Avicennia moved from Verbenaceae to Acanthaceae
2014-02-07 10:12:24 Kevin Thiele Leads for Acanthaceae edited to add cystoliths and retinacula
2014-02-01 11:27:01 Kevin Thiele Edit to accomodate Anacardiaceae with unequal anthers (e.g. Schinus)
2014-01-12 16:20:38 Kevin Thiele Hypericaceae split from Clusiaceae
2014-01-12 12:53:39 Kevin Thiele Cleomaceae split from Capparaceae
2014-01-12 11:53:05 Kevin Thiele Sarraceniaceae added
2014-01-12 11:36:50 Kevin Thiele Tetrachondraceae added
2014-01-11 21:28:11 Kevin Thiele Trimeniaceae added
2014-01-11 21:06:09 Kevin Thiele Caricaceae added
2014-01-11 20:40:52 Kevin Thiele Balsaminaceae added
2014-01-11 19:56:52 Kevin Thiele Nitrariaceae split from Zygophyllaceae
2014-01-11 16:55:58 Kevin Thiele Argophyllaceae and Cornaceae segregated
2014-01-11 15:55:28 Kevin Thiele Anarthriaceae split from Restionaceae
2014-01-11 15:29:07 Kevin Thiele Adoxaceae split from Caprifoliaceae
2014-01-11 14:28:41 Kevin Thiele Alseuosmiaceae added
2014-01-11 12:15:33 Kevin Thiele New lead added to account for Verbenaceae (e.g. Lantana) with truncate calyx (hence fewer than 6 perianth parts)
2014-01-11 11:39:53 Kevin Thiele New lead added for Convolvulaceae with (apparently) compound leaves (e.g. Ipomoea)
2013-12-27 19:33:14 Kevin Thiele Saxifragaceae sens. Cronquist removed; sens. APC added; Tetracarpaea added in Haloragaceae
2013-12-27 14:00:00 Kevin Thiele Hydrophyllaceae p.p. (Phacelia and Wigandia) merged with Boraginaceae
2013-12-27 11:31:28 Kevin Thiele Zannichelliaceae merged with Potamogetonaceae
2013-12-27 01:27:31 Kevin Thiele Martyniaceae split from Pedaliaceae
2013-12-27 00:29:16 Kevin Thiele Atherospermataceae split from Monimiaceae, and instances attributed
2013-12-21 21:33:07 Kevin Thiele Najadaceae merged with Hydrocharitaceae
2013-12-21 21:03:59 Kevin Thiele Aphanopetalaceae added
2013-12-21 20:45:29 Kevin Thiele Davidsoniaceae merged into Cunoniaceae
2013-12-21 20:24:18 Kevin Thiele Eucryphiaceae merged into Cunoniaceae
2013-12-21 19:44:41 Kevin Thiele Asclepiadaceae merged with Apocynaceae merged
2013-12-21 19:21:32 Kevin Thiele Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae merged with Malvaceae
2013-12-21 14:05:47 Kevin Thiele Berberidopsidaceae added
2013-12-21 13:20:04 Kevin Thiele Flacourtiaceae merged with Salicaceae; Achariaceae added
2013-12-21 12:06:09 Kevin Thiele Stackhousiaceae and Hippocrateaceae merged into Celastraceae
2013-12-21 00:56:12 Kevin Thiele Epacridaceae merged with Ericaceae
2013-12-10 23:13:18 Kevin Thiele Euphorbiaceae split into segregate families (Euphorbiaceae s.s, Putranjivaceae, Phyllanthaceae, Picrodendraceae) and instances assigned to subkeys
2013-12-01 17:02:56 Kevin Thiele Edited to account for Fedia and Valerianella (Caprifoliaceae), with 2 or 3 stamens
2013-12-01 16:44:08 Kevin Thiele Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae merged with Caprifoliaceae
2013-12-01 16:13:27 Kevin Thiele Legume families replaced by subfamily names
2013-12-01 15:35:40 Kevin Thiele Myrsinaceae merged with Primulaceae
2013-12-01 15:11:06 Kevin Thiele Paracryphiaceae (Sphenostemon) split from Aquifoliaceae
2013-12-01 14:24:26 Kevin Thiele Thismiaceae split from Burmanniaceae
2013-12-01 14:14:19 Kevin Thiele Leeaceae merged with Vitaceae; Punicaceae and Sonneratiaceae with Lythraceae
2013-12-01 11:12:40 Kevin Thiele Tremandraceae merged with Elaeocarpaceae, and 5-partite WA members accounted for
2013-11-30 23:49:06 Kevin Thiele Cuscutaceae merged with Convolvulaceae, Brunoniaceae with Goodeniaceae, Fumariaceae with Papaveraceae; Macarthuria removed from Molluginaceae into Limeaceae
2013-11-30 22:51:48 Kevin Thiele Lemnaceae merged with Araceae, Viscaceae with Santalaceae, Alangiaceae with Cornaceae, Aceraceae with Sapindaceae
2013-11-30 17:10:13 Kevin Thiele Pentaphylaceae {Ternstroemia cherryi} added (split from Theaceae)
2013-11-30 16:26:57 Kevin Thiele Magnoliaceae removed; Donatiaceae included in Stylidiaceae; Fagaceae changed to Nothofagaceae
2013-11-30 15:19:37 Kevin Thiele Trapaceae removed; Rafflesiaceae changed to Apodanthaceae; Idiospermaceae changed to Calycanthaceae; Grossulariaceae made monotypic
2013-01-10 22:21:10 Kevin Thiele Andruris updated to Sciaphila
2013-01-04 15:02:34 Kevin Thiele Chloanthaceae added as distinct from Verbenaceae (in preparation for dealing with Lamiales circumscription changes)
2013-01-03 15:57:36 Kevin Thiele Monogeneric and monotypic families replaced with genera and species respectively